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Our Latest Catalogue

You can download the PDF file for this catalogue here:
Russia October 2011 - Part 1.

Russian Influence
from the Black Sea to the Pacific Ocean
with Central Asia and the Great Game

Catalogue October 2011
Part 1

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1. [Carpini] , Giovanni da Pian del (1182-1252) and Ascelinus , Fr. (?)]

Sobranie Puteshestvii k Tataram i Drugim Vostochnim Narodam v XIII, XIV i XV Stoletiiakh [Collection of Travels to the Tartars and other Eastern People in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries] / Translated and edited by D. Yazykov.

Saint Petersburg: Typ. of the Department of Public Education, 1825. First Edition. Quarto. xxi , 306, [iii] pp. Text in parallel Latin and Russian Period style dark brown gilt tooled half calf with marbled boards and light brown gilt morocco label. Chinese stamp on half-title, otherwise a very good copy.

Very rare as only two copies found in Wordcat.

First Russian publication of both texts translated directly from Latin. Ascelinus' voyage had never been published in Russian before. The text of Plano Carpini had been published in Russian before (Moscow, 1795; and stereotype edition in 1800), but this earlier edition is inferior as it was translated (by A. Malinovskii) from the French text of P. Bergeron's Voyages faits principalement en Asie dans XII, XIII, XIV et XV siècles (A la Haye, 1735). Therefore, this Yazykov's edition is the first authentic and independent Russian translation of both voyages. This book was supposed to start a series which was to include the travel accounts of Rubruck, Marco Polo, Gaiton of Armenia, John Mandeville, and others, but this volume was the only one published.

Both works are important sources on the Mongol Empire and its possessions in Central Asia and Rus' in the 13th century.

Giovanni Da Pian Del Carpini (Engl. John of Plano Carpini) was a Franciscan friar, and the first noteworthy European traveller in the Mongol Empire, to which he was sent on a formal mission by Pope Innocent IV. He wrote the earliest important Western work on Central Asia. Pope Innocent IV, highly concerned with the Mongol invasion in Eastern Europe, dispatched in 1245 the first formal Catholic mission to them, partly to protest against their invasion of Christian territory and partly to gain reliable information about their numbers and their plans; there may also have been the hope of alliance with the Mongols against Islam. At the head of the mission the Pope placed Giovanni, then already more than 60 years old. "In February 1246 Carpini reached a Mongol Camp on the Dnieper River where 60,000 men were guarding the western frontiers of the empire.., The mission then proceeded down the frozen Dnieper, crossed the Don and reached the camp of Batu, grandson of Ghengis Khan on the Volga,., [Finally] they set out for the final leg of the journey to Mongolia, travelling north of the Caspian Sea, crossing the River Iaec (Ural R.) and continuing along the Syr Daya. They reached the camp of Batu's brother, to the northeast of Lake Balkhash.., The mission then proceeded through the Western Tian Shan, past the Ala Kol and the Dzungarian Lakes, and reached the imperial summer encampment at Syr Orda, near Qaraqorum.., There they witnessed the enthronement of the Khan Guyuk.., [Carpini provided] the first European description of Mongol way of life, including such observations as that their clothes were made of skins, their dwellings felt covered, and that they had a passion for fermented mare's milk" (Howgego C49).

2. [Caucasus, Photo Album]

Al'bom Vidov Voenno-Gruzinskoi Dorogi, Fotographiia Bratiev Rudnevikh v gorode Vladikavkaze [Album of the Views of the Georgian Military Road, by the Rudnevy Brothers' Photography in Vladikavkaz].

Vladikavkaz: Skoropechatnia Z. Shuvalova, [ca. 1870]. First Edition. Oblong Quarto. 10 leaves. Twenty mounted photographs (the last photograph mounted on verso of the rear endpaper). Title page and text to the photographs chromolithographed in gold. Original publisher's brown gilt cloth. Covers and gilt faded. Some of the photographs mildly faded but generally strong images. A very good album.

Very rare imprint as no copies found in Worldcat nor in Russian National and Russian State Libraries. The album was issued by Rudnev Brothers, prominent Vladikavkaz photographers (located on the Alexandrovsky prospect) who participated in the 1872 Russian Polytechnic Fair. It was a major (about 750 000 visitors) exhibition of industrial, agricultural, military, scientific, technological and cultural achievements of the Russian Empire, held in Moscow and dedicated to the bicentennial anniversary of the birth of Peter I).

The album contains early important images of the Russian advanced post in the Northern Caucasus; Vladikavkaz, and the Georgian Military road – a major route through the Caucasus Mountains from Russia to Georgia. The strong images include views of Vladikavkaz streets and buildings, bridges over the Terek, Stolovaya Mountain, the Darial Gorge, Kazbek Mountain with its glaciers, gorges, bridges and the monastery; local Ossetians dancing, riding horses etc.

Known since antiquity (it was mentioned by Strabo in his Geographica and by Pliny), the Georgian Military Road was expanded by the Russian military starting in 1799. After the Kingdom of Georgia was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1801, Tsar Alexander I ordered General Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov, commander-in-chief of Russian forces in the Caucasus to improve the surfacing of the road to facilitate troop movement and communications. When Yermolov announced the completion of the work in 1817, the highway was heralded as the "Russian Simplon". However, work continued until 1863. By this stage it had cost £4,000,000 (a staggering sum in the 1860s) but according to Bryce, in 1876, was of a high quality with two or three lanes and "iron bridges over the torrents", something he considered astonishing given that within Russia proper at this time decent roads were virtually non-existent.

The importance of the Georgian Military Highway as a through route has diminished in recent years, mainly because of delays at the border crossing between Russia and Georgia, and even, on occasions, the complete closure of that border post (Wikipedia).

3. [A Collection of Russian Folk Laws]

Sbornik Narodnih Juridicheskih Obichaev [A Collection of Russian Folk Laws] / Ed. P.A. Matveev. Issued as a part of the Proceedings of the Ethnographical Section of Russian Geographical Society (vol. 1).

Saint Petersburg: V. Kirschbaum, 1878. First and only edition. Large Octavo. [8], x, 191, 299, 103 pp. Period brown gilt tooled quarter sheep with marbled boards and cloth tips on corners. Original publisher's wrappers bound in. With the instruction for binder ("keep the wrappers") inscribed in pencil on the front wrapper, and a label of famous Russian antique book dealer of the 1920s "Pavel Gubar" on the rear paste down endpaper. Spine with minor wear, otherwise a very good copy.

The aim of this work is to gather together rare and unknown research about traditional and folk laws of inhabitants of the Russian Empire. The first and only volume (nothing else was issued) consists of 3 parts: "Folk laws of Russians", "Folk laws of the Native people of the Asian Russia", and "Notes on the legal laws". The second part is especially interesting for its detailed descriptions of the folk laws of the Arctic peoples like the Yakuts, Laplanders, Samoyeds and Karelians as well as the Kirgiz. Apart from precise descriptions of the laws the authors give quite interesting accounts of manners and customs of these native people, their food and dwellings, clothes, occupations, family relations, religion, holidays etc.

The work was executed by the special Commission at the Ethnography Department of Russian Geographical Society. The editor of the book was the Secretary of the Commission Paul Matveev (1844- ca. 1900), Russian lawyer, censor and publicist, specialized in Slavonic history. He published several books - about Folk laws in Samara region (1877), Bulgarian history (1887), life of writer Nikolay Gogol (1894) and others, as well as numerous articles in Russian historian magazines and Russian version of Brokhaus encyclopaedia. In the Preface he observes the history of the legal system in Russia regarding Native tribes and people of Asia , Northern Europe and Siberia.

The Best Fundamental Research of Asiatic Russia of the period, Very Rare when Complete

4. [Asiatic Russia]

Aziatskaia Rossia [Asiatic Russia] / Ed. by G.V. Glinka etc. Published by the Resettlement Administration of the Chief Directory of Agriculture.

Saint Petersburg: A.F. Marx Partnership, 1914. First and Only edition. Large Quarto 3 vols. & Elephant Folio Atlas. Original publisher's dark green quarter morocco with green cloth boards; gilt lettering on the spine and front boards; Russian Empire's coat of arms on the front boards. Chromolithographed publisher's wrappers preserved in the bindings. Endpapers reproduce coats of arms of the Russian Empire and its Asiatic cities. Owner's inscriptions on the wrapper of the first volume, corners are slightly bumped; otherwise text volumes are near fine copies. Atlas volume with old library stamps on the wrapper; stains on the boards, spine neatly repaired, corners slightly bumped, loss of the upper corners of the half title and the contents leaf, otherwise a very good copy. Overall a very good, strong set.

Vol. 1. People and manners beyond the Urals. vii, 576, ii pp. 11 color maps, 57 b/w plates (some folding), 1 large folding panorama.

Vol. 2. The land and economy. [4], 638, ii pp. 13 maps (most in color), 42 b/w plates (some folding).

Vol 3. Supplements and Indexes . [6], clv pp.

Atlas of the Asiatic Russia . [4], iv, 24 pp. 72 maps, plans and diagrams on 91 plates, mostly colored and double-page. Maps include 58a (a postal and telegraph map) not called for in the table of contents, the plates include statistical diagrams, plans, tables, a colored coat of arms, etc.

Fundamental research of Asiatic Russia, the best work on the subject in Imperial Russia, published as a luxury richly illustrated edition. Several of the best Russian typographies were engaged, including R. Golike and A. Vilborg Partnership. The Atlas contains very exact and detailed maps and became the pinnacle of Russian cartography at the time.

The book reflects the significant progress in the colonisation and development of Siberia, Russian Central Asia and the Far East which happened after the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway in the 1890's. It was at this time when Russia gradually became the biggest exporter of wheat, flax and animal produce in the world. The economic growth encouraged mass population migration from European Russia to the East which was controlled by the specially created Resettlement Administration of the Chief Directory of Agriculture. The Head of the Administration Grigori Glinka (1862-1934) encouraged the publication of this work and became its chief editor. Prominent Russian scientists participated in the edition, including A.I. Voeikov, S.M. Seredonin, N.A. Gavrilov and others.

The first volume contains articles on Siberian history, ethnography and administration, including those about native people (Chukchis, Kamchadals, Eskimos, Mongols, Aleuts, natives of Khiva and Bokhara etc.), Cossacks, Russian peasants, Old Believers and their customs and economy; descriptions of Siberian cities, administrative, legal, educational, medical systems etc. The second volume is dedicated to geography, industry, agriculture and transport systems of Asiatic Russia. The atlas contains historical essay about cartography of the region by Leo Bagrow. The maps represent all regions and provinces of Asiatic Russia, plans of 14 major cities; diagrams show statistical data about population density, climate, soils, trade, budgets of Asiatic cities etc. Index to the Atlas contains about 10 000 geographical names.

Catalogue of Russian National Library on-line.

One of the First Publications in the Buryat Language

5. [Buryat Language]

Uchenie Pered Priniatiem Sv. Kreshchenia s Perevodom na Buriatskii Razgovornii Jazik. [Teaching before Saint Christening with a Translation into Informal Buryat Language].

Kazan: University Typography, 1875. First Edition. Duodecimo. 37 pp. Text in parallel Russian and Buryat. Period gray wrappers. A very good copy.

Very Rare provincial imprint as no copies found in Worldcat and in on-line catalogues of the largest Russian libraries (Russian State Library and Russian National Library). This edition represents one of the earliest books published in the Buryat language whose alphabet based on Cyrillic type was ultimately set only in 1939.

This "teaching" brochure for people who were going to be Christianed was written by the head of the Orthodox mission in Altai, Archimandrite Macarios (1792-1847), a devoted and talented missionary who translated into the Altai language most of the Bible, Orthodox catechism and prayers etc. His Teaching before Saint Christening became very popular among the missionaries in the Urals and Siberia and attracted attention of the "Brotherhood of St. Gurii." This Orthodox missionary society (1867-1917) was formed with the aim of enlightenment and "strengthening the faith among the natives of the Kazan region". In 1875 the Society established a special Bureau for translation of Christian literature into more than 20 languages of Asiatic Russia (Tatar, Chuvash, Mordvinian, Mari, Altai, Yakut, Buryat and others). The bureau's associates translated this "Teaching" into Buryat, most likely creating the script for the language on the base of Cyrillic type as Buryat had traditionally used the Mongolian alphabet before.

6. [Odessa‘s Views]

Vidy Odessy [Odessa‘s Views: a Souvenir Album of the Main Odessa Sights].

Odessa: G.M. Levinson, [ca. 1890]. 20 leaves. Twenty lithographs folded accordion-like with printed descriptions in Russian, German and French. Original publisher's gray decorative gilt cloth, a very slight water stain on outer margin, the views partially detached from the covers, otherwise a very good copy.

The album includes views of the Odessa port and harbour, City Hall, City Court, famous Boulevard stairs, theatre, museum and city library, railway station, churches, monuments, streets etc.

7. [Russian Siberia And the Far East]

WYLIE, A. The overland Journey from St. Petersburg to Pekin (1-20 pp.); [With] CANNY, J.M. The Sea Board of Russian Manchuria (71-108 pp.).

In: Journal of The North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. New Series. No. I. December, 1864.

Shanghai: Presbyterian Mission Press, 1865. First Edition. Octavo. [4], 129-174, 1-20, 1-148=213pp. With a folding map of Yedo. Original publisher's light brown printed wrappers. A very good copy.

Two interesting contemporary articles about Russian Siberia and the Far East. Wylie's article is a well written and detailed guide for English travellers who would like to go to Peking from Saint Petersburg. It would take "two months and a week" and " for one who is willing to comply with the customs of the country in which he travels, who can easily forego the little comforts and luxuries of home life for a season, who feels a pleasure in the study of national character.., this route will be found full of interest, and will amply repay the little inconveniences and trials to which he may be occasionally exposed ". Wylie describes the way from London to Peking via Berlin, Saint Petersburg, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Perm, Yekaterinburg, Tumen, Omsk, Irkutsk, Kyakhta, Urga and Kalgan. He gives names of the hotels where the staff speaks European languages; prices for tickets and hotels, explains visa matters, characterizes main sights, local food, transportation etc.

Canny's article gives an early and interesting eye-witness account of the Russian territories in the Far East which just recently came into Russian possession, the River Amur and surrounding territory, with Vladivostok and Nikolaevsk, as well as the western shore of Sakhalin. Canny served in the Russian navy in 1862-63 under noted admiral and Commander of the Pacific Squadron, Andrei Alexandrovich Popov (1821-1898). His detailed account describes the territory, its military powers, administrative system, locals etc. The article is somehow connected with the events of American Civil War, when several Russian warships under Popov's command went to the west coast of America to threaten English colonial possessions there in case of war. Canny mentioned one of the ships of that squadron, the clipper Abrek, noting in his diary on the 28th of July, 1863: "The Abreck left yesterday, so that we are now quite alone in this barbarous place."

This is the first issue of the Journal after a long break in Society's work in 1861-64. Other articles are: Linday, R. Notes on the city of Yedo, the capital of Japan; Henderson, J. Notes on some of the Physical cases which modify climate; Dickson, W. Narrative of an overland trip from Canton to Hankow; Henderson, J. The Medicine and Medical Practice of the Chinese; Jamieson, R.A. Retrospect of events in the North of China during the Years 1861 to 1864.

The Royal Asiatic Society (RAS) was founded in 1823 by the eminent Sanskrit scholar Henry Colebrooke and a group of likeminded individuals. It received its Royal Charter from King George IV in the same year 'for the investigation of subjects connected with and for the encouragement of science, literature and the arts in relation to Asia'. Throughout the course of the Society's history many distinguished scholars have contributed to its work, including Sir Richard Burton (1821-90) the noted explorer and first translator of the Arabian Nights and Kama Sutra and Sir Aurel Stein (1862-1943) the renowned archaeologist and explorer of the 'Silk Road'. The Society is based in London and affiliate societies operate in India (Calcutta, Bombay, Bangalore, Madras, and Bihar), Sri Lanka, China (Shanghai and Hong Kong), Japan, Korea and Malaysia.

Shanghai (North-China) branch of RAS opened in 1857 with the goal to investigate subjects connected with China and surrounding nations, to publish papers in a Journal and to establish a library and a museum. The Society fell into decline following the death of the Society's first inspirational American president, the Rev. Elijah C. Bridgman in 1861. However Sir Harry Parkes, British Consul, successfully resurrected it in 1864 (we can also read about it in the Preface to the present issue). The Branch worked until 1952 when it closed due to financial difficulties and reopened in 2007 (RAS China in Shanghai on-line).

8. [Russian-Persian War 1722-1723]

Der Allerneueste Staat von Casan, Astracan, Georgien und Vieler Andern dem Czaren, Sultan und Schach, Zinsbaren und Unterthanen Tartarn, Landschaften und Provinzien: samt Einer Kurzen Nachricht von der Caspischen See, dem Daria-Strom, ingleichen von dem Persischen Hof, und Dessen Allerneuesten Staats- und Kriegs- Verfassung; zur Erläuterung der Russisch- und Persischen Kriegs-Operationen Entworfen, und mit Dienlichen Kupfern Ausgezieret [The very Latest Account of Kazan, Astrakhan, Georgia and many Other Possessions of the Czar, Sultan and Chakh, Tributary and Subjects Tartars, Landscapes and Provinces: with a Brief Account on the Caspian Sea..,].

Nurnberg: Wolfgang Moritz Endters sel. Erben, 1724. First Edition, Second Issue. Duodecimo. [xiv], 398 pp. With a copper engraved frontispiece, and four other folding copper engraved plates. Period quarter vellum with decorative papered boards. Rebacked with 17th century vellum with decorative manuscript initials, also with a brown ink inscriptions on the first endpaper (dated 1751) and a couple of library stamps on half title and title, otherwise a very good copy.

Rare work and one of the first books on Russian-Persian War of 1722-1723, published anonymously just a year after the end of the war and thoroughly describing the regions of the Southern Russia, the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea. The author describes the events of the Russian-Persian war which ended with a Russian victory and the subsequent Russian annexation of the Persian cities Derbent, Baku, Rasht and the northern Persian provinces of Shirvan, Gilyan and others. The author also describes all regions influenced by the war: the Volga River and all its major cities, including Kazan and Astrakhan (as the two main centers of the organization of the Persian campaign); the Caucasus: Georgia, Mingrelia, Dagestan and others; the Western Caspian Sea region and its largest cities Baku, Derbent and Shemakha. It`s interesting that Baku inhabitants were described as sick and lethargic, due to the poor water that was contaminated by Naphtan (oil). The text describes the geography of the Caucasus Mountains, including Mount Elbrus, the manners and customs of the people, genealogy of local Georgian and Mingrelian princes and others. The book includes engraved portrait of Sultan Hossein who ruled Persia at the time, three copper engraved views of Derbent, Baku and Shemakha, the Baku view showing various images of mostly burning oil wells; and a copper engraved plate of the local costumes. Nitsche-Stender 189.

Rare Russian Biography of Dmitrii Donskoi, First Russian to Defeat the Army of the Mongol-Tatars

9. [Savelyev-Rostislavich] , Nikolay Vasiljevich (1815-1854)

Dimitriy Ioannovich Donskoy, Pervonachalnik Russkoi Slavi [Dimitriy Ioannovich Donskoy, the First Leader of the Russian Glory].

Moscow: N. Stepanov, 1837. First Edition. Octavo. 157, [7] pp. 19th century black quarter morocco with black papered boards, rebacked in period style using the original boards. A very good copy.

Very rare as only 2 copies found in Worldcat. The first book by Nikolai Vasilievich Saveliev-Rostislavich , author of three major books and over a dozen articles in magazines Otechestvennye Zapiski , Syn Otechestva , Moskovskiy Nabljudatel' , etc., in the dictionary Military Encyclopedic Lexicon , mostly devoted to the history of the Slavs and the ancient peoples of Europe (Scythians, Sarmatians, Vikings, Huns, Goths and others).

This book is dedicated to the outstanding Russian military leader, the Moscow Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy , who was the first among the Russian princes to defeat the army of the Mongol-Tatars: in 1380 in the Battle of Kulikov field (not far from the river Don) Donskoy inflicted a crushing defeat against Khan Mamay, for what became known as 'Donskoy'. It was in his reign, that Moscow established its leadership position in the Russian lands. Dmitry Donskoy was the first to pass on power to his eldest son Basil without the sanction of the Golden Horde.

Russian Brokhaus Encyclopaedia online; Polovtsev's Russian Biographical Dictionary online.

10. [Siberia]

Der Allerneueste Staat von Siberien, Einer Grossen und Zuvor Wenig Bekannten Moscowitischen Provinz in Asien. Entdeckend Nicht nur die Ehemalige und Gegenwärtige Beschaffenheit des Landes. Nach Seiner Regierung, nach der Gegend Frucht- und Unfruchtbarkeit, Gebürgen, Thieren, Flüssen, Städten u d. G. Sondern auch Die Sitten und Gebräuche Der Samoieden, Wagullen, Calmuken, Ostiaken, Tungusen, Buriatten, Mongalen und anderer Tartarischen Völker. Nebst Einer Historischen Nachricht von den Merkwürdigen Begebenheiten derer in diesem Lande Gefangenen Schweden, von der Schule zu Tobolsky, und vom wunderbaren Anfang zur Bekehrung der Unglaubigen [The Latest State of Siberia, a Large and Previously Little-known Muscovite Province in Asia. Discovering not Only the Former and the Present Condition of the Country... But also the Manners and Customs of the Samoeds, Voguls, Kalmyks, Ostiaks, Tungus, Buryates, Mongols and other Tartar People. With a History of Curious Events Happened to Swedish Prisoners in this Country, from Founding a School in Tobolsk to Wonderful Beginning of the Conversion of Infidels].

Nurnberg: bei Wolfgang Moritz Endters seel Erben, 1725. Second Edition. Duodecimo. [viii], 246, [x] pp. With a copper engraved frontispiece and one folding copper engraved plate (a view of Tobolsk), woodcut initials and endings. Period brown full calf with raised bands, blind flower ornaments in compartments and blind lettering. Extremities slightly rubbed, title page with a neatly repaired minor tear. Owner's black ink signature "Mandelin" and black stamp "C.G. Mandelin" on the title page. Brown ink note "Franz von Frankenberg" on verso of the title; coat of arms and inscription "Frankiana" made with brown ink on the paste down of the first end paper. A very good copy.

This early work on Siberia is by an anonymous author who compiled information from various works including Nicolaes Witsen ( Noord en Oost Tartarye ; Amsterdam, 1692), Evert Isbrand Ides ( Riejahrige Reize naar China, te Lande gedaen door den Moscovitischen Abgesant E. Isbrants Ides ; Amsterdam, 1704) and Adam Brand ( Beschreibung der Chinesischen Reise welche vermittelst Einer Zarischen Gesandschaft durch Dero Ambassadeur, Herrn, Isbrand ; Hamburg, 1698). The last part of the book "Historische Nachricht von den merkwuerdigen Begebencheiten der gefangenen Schweden in Sibirien" (p. 185-246) was based on the narratives of Swedish prisoners of war who were captured during the Great Northern War (1701-1721), were kept in Siberia for about ten years (first of all in Tobolsk) and managed to collect very interesting ethnographical and historical materials about Siberia. The folded engraved plate shows Tobolsk Kremlin and the point of confluence of rivers Tobol and Irtysh with the city and numerous boats on the foreground.

One of the previous owners of the book was C.G. Mandelin who was a pastor of St. Maria Kirche in St. Petersburg.

11. [Siberia]

Znamensky , Mikhail Stepanovich (1833-1892)

Three Watercolours Show Scenes of Ostiaks (Khanty), a Northern Siberian Tribe from the Vicinity of Tobolsk. These watercolours are from the series of works created by Znamensky to the celebrate the 300th anniversary of the founding of Tobolsk and annexation of Siberia to Russia, which was celebrated in 1885.

Tobolsk, 1880. Three paintings (each is 17.5 x 23 cm), on paper, within a line border; all were signed by the author in the left lower corner ('Znamensky'). The watercolours have brief descriptions in lower margin, made by pencil in Swedish. The watercolours are in fine condition and housed in a custom made blue half cloth clam-shell portfolio with marbled boards. A fine set.


These watercolours were created by Mikhail Stepanovich Znamensky , a prominent 19th century Siberian artist, writer, historian, archaeologist and ethnographer. Very well educated as a religious artist, Znamensky belonged to the elite society of Tobolsk and was close to many exiled members of the famous Decemberist revolt of 1825 (I. Puschin, I. Yakushkin and others), as well as to outstanding Russian writer Pyotr Yershov. Znamensky worked as a teacher in several religious and secular colleges in Tobolsk; was a translator of the Tatar language. He also illustrated the literary works of N. Gogol, P. Yershov, N. Goncharov, Leo Tolstoy and regularly published his caricatures in Saint Petersburg magazines Iskra and Vsemirnaia Istoriia . But his main interest was Siberian history and ethnography. Znamensky's essays and stories on Siberian history were regularly published in the local magazines Sibirskii listok , Vostochnoe obozrenie and Tobolskie Vedomosti . Several of his books on the same topic were published in Tobolsk, Tyumen and Saint Petersburg.

Highly interested in Siberian history and ethnography, in 1850-1860's Znamensky travelled extensively in Siberia, Central Asia and Northern regions of Asiatic Russia, making interesting sketches and paintings of the landscapes and tribes. In 1872 his works were exhibited at Moscow Polytechnic Exhibition, where they were awarded with the silver medal from Moscow University.

Our watercolours are from the series of works created by Znamensky to the celebrate the 300th anniversary of the founding of Tobolsk and annexation of Siberia to Russia, which was celebrated in 1885. The artist took a special trip around the towns of the Tobolsk region - Berezov and Obdorsk (now Salekhard). The result was a unique series of sketches and watercolours. From this work an album titled: From Tobolsk to Obdorsk , was bound in a portfolio, specially made of birch bark. It contained 32 works depicting panoramas of Tobolsk, Berezov and Obdorsk, life of local people (Russians, Ostiaks, Samoeds, Tatars), and historical sketches ("Conquer of Siberia" etc).

The album was exhibited in the Tobolsk Art Gallery in 1889. Later, in 1894 the heir to the Russian throne Nikolai Alexandrovich (future Russian emperor Nikolai II) visited Tobolsk during his around the world trip. He was very attracted by the album and bought it for the high price of 800 roubles (as per his inscription on the verso of the folder). The album came to the Emperor's library in the Winter palace in Saint Petersburg and after the Revolution of 1917 became part of the Russian State Library in Moscow where it is located now.

Our watercolours weren't included in the album but they are very similar stylistically with the ones included. For example the scene with three Ostiaks, a Russian bureaucrat and a portrait of Russian Emperor Alexander II at the background compositionally repeats the watercolour included in the album with minor differences (color of the table cloth, for example).

Znamensky's watercolours weren't published in Russia before the Revolution of 1917. His album From Tobolsk to Obdorsk was facsimile reprinted for the first time in 2008. However, his works were used as illustrations in the first and only edition of the book by the Italian ethnographer, anthropologist and botanist Stefano Sommier Un' Estate in Siberia fra Ostiacchi, Samoiedi, Siriéni, Tatàri, Kirghìsi e Baskìri (Firenze, 1885). This valuable report of Sommier's travels through Siberia in 1880 contains 14 interesting woodcuts based on Znamensky's water colours and depicts Samoyeds and Ostiaks resting in their dwellings, riding deer, playing musical instruments, walking at market place and others. Znamensky's works are in many Russian state collections including the State Historical Museum (Moscow), State Literary Museum (Moscow), Omsk Art Gallery, Tobolsk State Historic-Architectural Museum and others.

Russian Brokhaus Encyclopaedia online; Polovtsev's Russian Biographical Dictionary online.

12. [Tibet]

East India (Tibet) British Parliamentary Papers 1904-1910.

London: HMSO, 1904-1910. First Edition With Two Signed Letters by Younghusband & Macdonald. Folio. x, iv, xxvi, xvi , 314, 29, 3, 277, 229 pp. With a large folding map. Period style navy gilt tooled half straight-grained morocco with navy cloth boards. A near fine copy.

Sir Francis Younghusband. Autograph Letter Signed "FE Younghusband" to Colonel Nisbet. [Headed notepaper] Bowood, Calne, Wilts, 15 Jan. 1905. Three pages, 8vo, good condition. Young husband was a soldier, diplomatist, explorer, geographer, and mystic (see DNB). He thanks Nisbet for a dinner and the trouble he had taken "to gather together so many representative Anglo-Indians. It went off wonderfully well and I am most grateful to you for having got together such a welcome for me." He is having a "jolly time in one of the most delightful of the 'stately homes of England [Bowood House]'", and expects to return to London to see all his friends. Note: his mission to Tibet was in 1903-4, so he was in the recovery period, perhaps even just returned. His correspondent, Nisbet, preceded him as Resident in Kashmir. The dinner was presumably a celebration of his mission. He was staying in the country house, Bowood, of Lord Lansdowne, eminent statesman and sometime Viceroy of India which he mentions above as if contrasting it with Tibet.

[With] Sir James Ronald Leslie Macdonald. Autograph Letter Signed "JRL Macdonald" to "Sir Reginald". Burton's Hotel, 29 Queen Anne's St., S.W. 27 May 1905. Major-General, on Younghusband expedition to Tibet in 1903. Four pages, 8vo, some staining but mainly good condition, note in another hand (prob. Sir Reginald's giving details of writer and underlining the passage about Lady Macdonald's health. "... The 7th July will do excellently for the presentation of the Thibet plate. / I have directed [Con & Co?] to send round a circular to the officers concerned informing them of the date & asking all who can attend to send their names to the [?] President. ...[Lady Macdonald's health and his inability to visit] Have you read Col. Waddell's book 'Lhasa & its Mysteries.' It is the best book on the Thibet show. / I got into Percival Landon's black books owing to enforcing the Press Censorship Rules & he appears to have run down the Military side of the Expedition in consequence. / However I think the proper authorities all know how much of the success was due to the military & how little to the Political..."

Note (DNB account): "In that year (1903) the government of India decided to dispatch a political mission to Tibet under (Sir) Francis Younghusband, in order to counter Russian intrigues and to stabilize relations with Tibet by means of a treaty. Lord Kitchener, commander-in-chief in India, selected Macdonald to command the military escort. The party crossed the Jelep pass and entered Tibet on 12 December 1903. The journey was broken by several engagements with the Tibetans, who resisted the advance of the mission during the next four months, especially in the neighbourhood of Gyantse. Gyantse fort itself was the scene of severe encounters and, although it surrendered without resistance on 12 April, the capture was not finally consolidated until 7 July, when the monastery and the rest of Gyantse were secured. The last stage of the march began on 13 July 1904, and on 3 August the mission arrived at Lhasa, where a treaty was duly concluded. For this arduous campaign, Macdonald was awarded the K.C.I.E. And received the medal and clasp of the expedition."

The papers comprise: PAPERS RELATING TO TIBET, Cd 1920. 1904 - large folding map (Routes between Tibet and India). x, 314 pp; FURTHER PAPERS RELATING TO TIBET (In continuation of Cd 1920) Cd 2054. 1904. iv, 29 pp; FURTHER PAPERS RELATING TO TIBET, No III. (In continuation of Cd 2054) Cd 2370. 1905. xxvi, 277 pp; FURTHER PAPERS RELATING TO TIBET (In continuation of Cd 2370) Cd 5240. 1910. xvi, 229 pp.

Here is to be found the background to the 1904 Mission, reports from Nepal of Tibetan attacks on yaks, warnings to the Russian ambassador of the contemplation of the Mission, conversations with Russian ambassadors and Chinese Government, Younghusband's reports of the Mission's progress, etc.

The second paper begins with a dramatic telegraphic reports from Younghusband, dated 31st Jan 1904: "All authority has been taken by the Dalai Lama into his own hands. He has ignored the Chinese, has thrown his Councillors into prison, and has defied us. Officials and people share his confidence in the strength of Tibet, and the impotence of the British Government.: This intransigent attitude was to lead to the heavy Tibetan losses against superior modern forces, something which Younghusband had not expected. In a later despatch from the Escort Commander, Macdonald notes Younghusband's order to avoid firing unless attacked and then recounts: "They were informed that they would have to lay down their arms, and an attempt was accordingly made to disarm them. The Lhasa leaders then incited an attack upon us, the Lhasa Depon firing the first shot and the Tibetans firing point blank and charging with swords: they were, however, so hemmed in that they could not make use of their numbers, and after a few minutes were in full retreat under a heavy fire of guns, Maxims and rifles, which caused them heavy loss."

Even in the midst of war trade continued whenever there was an interval. Younghusband reports from Gyantse on 22nd April: "Camp is besieged with Tibetans selling country products, carpets and trinkets. A daily bazaar is now established outside the camp. Today 177 Tibetans, mostly women, were selling their goods there. The scene presented was very remarkable and significant - British officers and soldiers, Sikhs, Ghurkhas, and Bhutias bargaining away peaceably with their foes of a fortnight ago, and giving the sharp Tibetan traders exorbitant prices for vegetables, eggs, condiments, watches, cigarettes, carpets, trinkets, cotton goods, cooking utensils - even penny whistles. The Tibetans are evidently born traders and they are already sending to Phari for more goods from India" (Howgego Continental Exploration 1850-1940, M2 &Y4).

13. Allen , William H.

Map of Afghanistan and the Adjacent Countries, Published By Authority of the Honourable Court of Directors of the East India Company.

London: W.H. Allen and Co., 1842. First Edition. Drawn and engraved by J. & C. Walker. Approximately 66x80 cm (26x31.5 inches). Large folded copper engraved map, outline hand colored. Original publisher's brown cloth, gilt lettered spine, gilt stamped vignette depicting armed Afghans on the front cover, blind stamped borders on both covers. Spine mildly faded, small stain on the front cover, owner's signature on verso of the front board, otherwise a very good map.

The map shows the area from Amu Darya River and Bokhara Khanate in the north to the mouth of the Indus River in the South; from Herat, Helmand river and Sistan marches in the west to the sources of the Indus, Kashmir and Sutley river in the east. Allen and Co were the booksellers of the Honourable East India Company. The partnership of John and Charles Walker, prolific engravers who worked for other cartographers and for themselves flourished from 1820.., They published numerous maps of all parts of the world and were appointed engravers for the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (Tooley Q-Z, p. 345-346).

14. Atkinson , James (1780-1852)

The City of Candahar.

London: H. Graves & Co., 1842. First Edition. 25x37 cm (10x14.5 inches). Sepia tinted lithograph heightened in white. A very mild water stain on lower left corner, not affecting image, otherwise a very good print.

A distant prospect of Kandahar or Qandahar, now the second largest city in Afghanistan located in the south of the country; troops, tents and locals supplying food provisions to foreground. Besieging Anglo-Indian forces took Kandahar on April 25, 1839, on their way to Kabul. The First Anglo-Afghan War was fought between British India and Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842.

From Sketches in Afghaunistan by James Atkinson of the East India Company's Bengal Medical Service. Lithography by Louis and Charles Haghe. Atkinson's "Expedition into Affghanistan provides an interesting personal narrative, supplemented by his Sketches in Afghanistan (1842) containing a series of lithographed drawings which complete the picture of what was then an unexplored country. He also had a talent for portraiture, several of his works, including a self-portrait, are in the National Portrait Gallery" (Oxford DNB). Abbey Travel 508, #15.

15. Barthold , Vasiliy Vladimirovich (1869-1930)

Istoriia Kul'turnoi Zhizni Turkestana [History of the Cultural Life of Turkestan].

Leningrad: USSR Academy of Science, 1927. First Edition. Quarto. [2], ii, 256 pp. With errata slip. Period green half cloth with marbled boards. A very good copy.

Owner's inscriptions of I. Petrushevskii on the first endpaper and title page.

Important description of the culture and history of Turkestan, Russian Central Asia, from the 4th century BC to beginning of the 20th century AD. Chapters include pre-Muslim Turkestan, Muslim rule, Mongols in Turkestan, development of the Khanates. More than a half of the work concerns the description of Russian Rule and its influence on the culture and life of the local people, including the history of Russian schools, Cossacks colonisation, Russian agricultural settlements, cities, bureaucracy, European methods of ruling the locals etc. Vasilii Bartold was a noted Russian orientalist, one of the founders of Soviet Oriental studies, a member of Russian Academy of Sciences. His works on the history of Islam, Mongolian conquest, studies of the Arab sources on the ancient Slavs and Ruses were translated into several languages.

From the library of a prominent Soviet historian of Asia Minor, Persia and Central Asia, Ilia Pavlovich Petrushevski (1898-1977). Catalogue of Russian National Library on-line.

16. Bax , B(onham) W(ard)

The Eastern Seas; Being a Narrative of the Voyages of H.M.S. "Dwarf" in China, Japan, and Formosa. With a description of the coast of Russian Tartary and Eastern Siberia, from the Corea to the River Amur.

London: John Murray, 1875. First Edition. Octavo. x, 287 pp. With a frontispiece, three other plates, one folding map and nine text illustrations. Period black gilt tooled half morocco with cloth boards. With a library stamp on front cover, otherwise a very good copy.

"In consequence of H.M.S.' Dwarf' having visited many places in China, Japan, and the Russian possessions on the coast of Siberia about which very little has been written up to the present time, I have endeavoured to describe her commission of three years and eight months in those seas and the places visited" (from the preface).

The Dwarf left for China in April, 1868, and was recommissioned at Hongkong on the 18th of July, 1871, by Commander B.W. Bax. Then in June, 1873, she preceded to Japan, and then accompanied by Vice-Admiral Shadwell the Dwarf cruised the coast of Russian Siberia. NMM (Voyages & Travel) 541.

17. Bode , Baron C[lement] A[ugustus] de

Travels in Luristan and Arabistan.

London: J. Madden and Co, 1845. First Edition. Octavo, 2 vols. xx, 404; xii, 398, [1] pp. With fifteen lithographed and wood engraved plates (two folding) and two folding engraved maps. Recent period style brown gilt tooled half calf with marbled boards and black gilt morocco labels. A very good set.

An important account on Persia with detailed descriptions of the antiquities, archaeological sites and the ancient history of the country. De Bode travelled from Tehran to Isfahan, Persepolis, Shiraz, Kazeroun, Shushtar, Susa, Khorramabad and back to Tehran. "Luristan" (modern "Loristan"), or the land of the Luri people, is a western province of Persia and the main city is Khorramabad. "Arabistan" (modern "Khuzestan") is located in the Eastern Persia and the main city is Ahwaz.

De Bode gives a detailed account of the ancient cities of Persepolis, the ceremonial capital of the Ahaemenid Empire, and Susa which used to be the capital of the legendary civilisation Elam, mentioned in the Bible. In his narrative he describes numerous archaeological sites, lists the names of settlements, describes the history of the local tribes and their manners and customs. As a supplement he published his observations on the routes of Timur and Alexander the Great who crossed south-western Persia during their conquering marches. "It is with the view of rescuing from a second oblivion this once classical ground that the Author has endeavoured to draw aside a corner of the veil which still covers this mysterious region" (Preface). One of Bode's advisors whom he acknowledges in the Preface, was the renowned Assyriologist Sir Henry Rawlinson (1810-1895), an expert in Persian and Indian vernacular languages who explored Susiana and Persian Kurdistan and was called by Budge, in The Rise and Progress of Assyriology (1925), "the father of Assyriology" (Oxford DNB).

"Clement Augustus de Bode, a member of the Russian legation in Tehran, filled some empty spaces in existing maps" (Howgego 1800-1850, G2); "The author travelled in 1841 from Tehran to Esfahan, Persepolis, Shiraz, Kazeroun, Shushtar, Dezful, Susa, Khorramabad, Boroujerd and back to Tehran. It is mostly a travel book, however, the author gives a good picture of tribal life and especially the political situation in Fars; principally the hostility between the Qashqai tribe which controlled Shiraz. There is also descriptions of historical sites and monuments along the way" (Ghani p. 93).

18. Borodovckii , Leonid Ivanovich (1870-1906)

Karta Sobstvennago Kitaia I Prilezhashchikh Oblastei [The Map of China and Adjacent Provinces, Compiled after the Maps of Bretshneider, Veber and Matusovskii].

Saint Petersburg: Cartographical Office of A. Il'in, 1903. First Edition. Large folding linen-backed map. Approx. 66 x 73 cm (26 x 28,5 inches), borders and routes outlined in color. A near fine map.

The map is from the Russian edition of the book by Edward H. Parker China: Her History, Diplomacy and Commerce from the Earliest Times to the Present Day (Saint Petersburg, 1903). The map shows China, Corea, Formosa, Loo-Choo Islands, part of Mongolia, Burma and Vietnam. Apart from different cities, the map outlines the Great Wall of China, Russian consulates and post offices, railways (for example, leading to Port Arthur), points opened for foreign trade etc. Dotted lines mark the railways under construction.

19. Burnaby , Frederick Gustavus (1842-1885)

Two important autograph letters boldly signed, to "Sir" [Richard Bentley, publishers]. [Headed notepaper] Cavalry Barracks, Windsor, 11 and 13 April 1876.

Windsor, 11 & 13 April 1876. Four pages each, total eight pages. Letters: ca. 18x11 cm (7x4.5 inches). The two letters on Cavalry Barracks, Windsor letterhead are in fine condition.

[11 April]: "I have no objection to write a work on my travels to Khiva - provided the terms offered are acceptable - Several Publishers have written to me... & [I] am perfectly prepared to take into consideration any offer you may propose - If I were to write a work the volume would be about the same size as S[amue]l Bakers...". He goes on to describe how experienced a writer he is through being "The Times" correspondent in Spain and Egypt. If he writes something he has no doubt it will sell well "however I am not going to take the trouble to go into the book market on mere speculation." Another hand (in the publishers) has added notes for a proposition: "100 on day of pub[lication] / 200 on sale of 1100 / 200 on sale of 1800".

[13 April]: He doesn't find their proposal "sufficetly definite to suit me. What I would require is a fixed sum down on the day the work is handed over to the Publisher - I have been already offered 750 by one firm & have not as yet accepted the offer as I am convinced that with the interest attached to the Eastern Question & the curiosity of the public to [hear?] what was the gist of my interview with the Khan of Khiva which by the way was of a highly political character - that the book would have an immense sale - There are several other Publishers also in treaty... - it would be as well to lose no time. I shall come to terms with the Publisher who offers me the best terms."

Note: Fred Burnaby. The Ride to Khiva. With maps and an appendix, containing, amongst other information, a series of march-routes, translated from several Russian works. Publisher: Cassell Petter & Galpin, [1876]. Its sale fully justified Burnaby's anticipations.

"In 1875, on leave again, Burnaby departed from London on 30 November and in the winter travelled through Russia and central Asia, enduring intense cold and frostbite. Evading Russian officials, and accompanied by a dwarf Tartar servant, in January 1876 he reached Khiva and was welcomed by the khan. Back in England Burnaby was lionized, and summoned by the queen to dinner at Windsor. He published A Ride to Khiva (1876), which he sold outright for £750. It was a vivid, lively travelogue, proudly British, in which he warned against Russian aggressive expansion through central Asia towards India, and denounced Russian rule as despotic, corrupt, and cruel. The book, vigorously advertised, sold well and was reprinted and translated. His journey and book made Burnaby a celebrity" (Oxford DNB).

20. Callières , François de (1645-1717)

Kakim obrazom dogovarivat'sia s gosudariami, ili O Pol'ze dogovorov, o Izbranii Poslov i Poslannikov, I o Kachestvah Nuzhnih dlia Poluchenia Uspekha v Sih Zvanijah [On the Manner of Negotiating with Sovereigns, Or the Usefulness of Treaties, the Selection of Ambassadors and Envoys, and the Qualities Needed to Succeed in These Occupations] / Translated from the French Ryswick edition of 1757.

Saint Petersburg: Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1772-1783. Second Edition. Octavo, 2 vols. in one. [6], [ii], 272, [xi]; [i], 242, [lv] pp. Period Russian brown full calf, maroon gilt label. Chinese ownership stamp on front pastedown. Extremities mildly worn, some leaves very mildly damp stained, mainly in the second part, otherwise a good copy.

Very Rare work as almost all Russian books of the 18th century; only one copy found in Worldcat.

François de Callières was a French diplomat and author whose book De la manière de négocier avec les souverains (1716; The Practice of Diplomacy) was considered a model introduction to the subject of diplomacy. Between 1670 and 1700 Callières was sent on many diplomatic missions, notably as a French plenipotentiary to the Dutch United Provinces for discussions preliminary to the Peace of Rijswijk (1697), which ended the War of the Grand Alliance. King Louis XIV rewarded Callières by appointing him cabinet secretary (1698). Callières' treatise outlines the qualifications, duties, conduct, and methods of the ideal negotiator. Although the treatise condones the judicious use of flattery and bribery, it warns against trickery as prejudicial to the confidence that an envoy must inspire (Encyclopaedia Britannica).

The Russian edition was published by the Society, Endeavouring the Translation of the Foreign Books (1768-1783). First edition was issued in 1772 (205 copies), this, second edition (727 copies) was printed not earlier than 1782 as the paper is watermarked 1781/82. The book consists of two parts: the first part describes all main diplomatic matters in 24 chapters; the second part gives the detailed explanation of those matters in 94 questions and answers. The book is supplemented with Explanation of Foreign words used in the text (part 1) and Subject Index (Part 2).

Svodny katalog XVIII v. 2757; Sopikov 5007.

21. Chardin , John (1643-1713)

The Travels of Sir John Chardin into Persia and the East Indies, Through the Black Sea and the Country of Colchis.

London: Moses Pitt, 1689. First Edition, Second Impression. Folio. [xiii], 417; [8]; 154; [5] pp. Frontispiece portrait, engraved title, printed title, plus a folding map of the Black Sea, and 16 engraved plates (most of them folding views). Engraved title page vignette. Period style dark brown gilt tooled half calf with marbled boards. A near fine copy.

"Chardin was a Huguenot who was forced to emigrate to England. He was knighted by Charles II and on his death was buried in Westminster Abbey. His first visit to the East was made in 1665, at the age of twenty-two, when he both gratified a love of travelling and carried on his trade as a dealer in jewels. His more important voyage was made in 1671. His route differed from that usually taken by travellers to the East Indies in that he proceeded by way of the Black Sea and the countries bordering thereon. His account of the Persian court and of his business transactions with the shah are of great interest. Sir William Jones regarded his narrative as the best yet published on the Mohammedan nations" (Cox I, p 249-250).

"Chardin set out for Persia for a second time in August 1671, but on this occasion diverted through Smyrna and Constantinople, and took the Black Sea Route to Caucasia, Mingrelia and Georgia, finally arriving at Esfahan in June 1673. In Georgia he heard of a race of warlike women, the Amazons, who had at some time in the recent past invaded a kingdom to the northwest. He remained in Persia for four years, as he says 'chiefly following the court in its removals, but also making some particular journeys.., as well as studying the language.' He apparently knew Esfahan better than Paris, and visited nearly every part of the country. His account of the Persian court and his business transactions with the shah are of considerable interest. In 1677 he proceeded to India, afterwards returning to France by way of the Cape of Good Hope" (Howgego C102); His second and more notable voyage to Persia, is important because it is in the account of this voyage that he describes life in late Safavid Persia" (Ghani p.71).

22. Concanen , Alfred

Stannard & Son's Birds-Eye View of Afghanistan and Central Asia, Showing the Positions of the Russian and Afghans Advanced Posts, Compiled From the Latest Reliable Sources Under the Direction of the Publishers by Alfred Concanen.

London: Stannard & Son, 1885. First Edition. Large folding tinted lithographed map. Approx. 55x76 cm (22x30 inches). Original publisher's gray printed (orange) wrappers, separate from map. A near fine map.

Very rare map with only one copy found in Worldcat. This attractive bird's eye view map shows the region from the Aral Sea, Syr Darya River and Tashkent in the north to the Arabian Sea and the mouth of the Indus in the south; from the Caspian Sea and Tehran in the west to Simla and Ladakh in the east. "Showing the Positions of the Russian and Afghans' Advanced Posts." There is also a smaller outline sketch of the region in the bottom right corner of the map, showing wider borders: Deccan and Arabian Peninsulas, parts of Africa, the Mediterranean and Turkey. State borders outlined in black, "Disputed territories" between Russian Turkestan and Afghanistan outlined in pink.

23. Cunningham , Alexander (1814-1893)

Ladakh: Physical, Statistical and Historical With Notices of the Surrounding Countries.

London: Wm. H. Allen & Co., 1854. First Edition. Large Octavo. [xiv], 485 pp. With a large linen backed folding map and 31 plates (17 colored). Handsome period style red gilt tooled half straight grained morocco with marbled boards. Apparent binders flaw bound without pages 397-408 (replaced with high quality facsimiles on matching paper) otherwise a very good copy.

"The author travelled the border of the country between Ladakh and Tibet in 1846. In 1847 and 1848, moreover he travelled, accompanied with H. Strachey and Thomas Thomson, the most part of Zanskar, Rupshu and Eastern Ladakh, and many lands of Baltistan" (Yakushi C400). "In 1845 the British acquired control over the small mountain states of Kulu, Lahul and Spiti, located to the north of Simla, bordering on Tibet. In the following year the military engineer and amateur archaeologist Alexander Cunningham carried out a preliminary survey of the watershed between these states and Ladakh, with object of defining a frontier. In 1847 the British Government in India extended its interest to the boundary between Ladakh and Tibet, appointing Cunningham, along with Thomas Thomson and Lieutenant Henry Strachey, as boundary commissioners. Cunningham and Strachey joined Thomson in Simla in the summer and departed on 2.8.47 to follow the Sutjey Valley to Spiti and thence to Hanle in Ladakh by a round-about route over the passes of Lanak and Parang" (Howgego 1800-1850, T7).

24. De Baye , Joseph Berthelot, Baron (1853-1931)

Tiflis: Souvenirs d'Une Mission. [Tiflis: Souvenirs of a Mission] [A rare offprint of the article in "La Revue de Géographie" (Aug., Sept. and Oct. 1900)].

Paris: Librairie Nilsson, 1900. First Edition. Large Octavo. 52 pp. With numerous illustrations in text. Original publisher's light green printed wrappers. Private library stamp on verso of the front wrapper, otherwise a very good copy.

Richly illustrated account of the Georgian capital Tiflis (Tbilisi).

Le Baron Joseph Berthelot de Baye was a French archaeologist, anthropologist and ethnographer, who extensively surveyed different regions of Russia. He travelled to the North Caucasus, and especially Georgia and Abkhazia, Siberia and the Urals, Southern Russia, Crimea, Ukraine, Lithuania; and made archaeological expeditions, purchased and studied ethnographic material. De Baye organized conferences and published numerous articles and books to introduce European society to the cultures of the Russian Empire. He left a rich archive of photo material of his travels (Georgian National Centre of Manuscripts on-line).

25. Dolgorukov , Vsevolod Alexeevich (1845-1912)

Putevoditel po Vsei Sibiri i Sredneaziatskim vladeniiam Rossii [A Guide to Siberia and the Russian Possessions in Central Asia].

Tomsk: P.I. Makushin, 1900-1901. First Edition of Fifth Year. Octavo. [2], iv, iii, 540 pp. Portrait frontispiece, six plates, and numerous illustrations in text. Some titles and text on the plates in Russian and French. Period style light brown gilt tooled quarter sheep with marbled boards. A very good copy.

Very rare as only one copy of this issue found in Worldcat. Very interesting provincial imprint continuing the tradition of the fundamental directories All Moscow and All Saint Petersburg started by famous Russian publisher Alexei Suvorin. Our Putevoditel was published for seven years (1897-1904). Volume 5 was published in Russian and also in French, German, English, and Italian. This is a copy of the Russian edition.

The book gives comprehensive information for a potential traveller to Siberia and Central Asia: routes, schedules and prices for railroads to and within Siberia; information about steamers going along the main rivers, Lake Baikal, the Sea of Okhotsk and around Kamchatka; sea connection to Vladivostok, Port Arthur, Commander islands, Sakhalin; it also describes all Siberian roads, stations, major cities. For every city Dolgorukov gives the list of main hotels, institutions, sights etc. Separate sections are dedicated to the main connections in the Central Asia; all resorts and mineral springs, and the legal system of the region. A special "Address" section includes the names of all main Siberian and Turkestan state officials, religious authorities, offices, companies, banks, hospitals and education institutions, societies, fairs etc. The book is supplemented with the Index of personal and geographical names and numerous advertisements of Siberian and Central Asian businesses.

Vsevolod Dolgorukov was a Russian nobleman, writer and publisher. Having graduated from the Saint Petersburg Sea Cadet Corps, he quit the naval service and participated in several frauds being a member of the famous Club of Knaves of Hearts, a criminal organisation of high society people who committed numerous swindles with money and property. Exiled to Tomsk in 1877, Dolgorukov published books of poems, wrote articles and issued several newspapers, but his most successful enterprise were the guidebooks to Siberia. Catalogue of Russian National Library on-line.

26. Drew , Frederick (1836-1891)

The Northern Barrier of India. A Popular Account of the Jummoo and Kashmir Territories.

London: Edward Stanford, 1877. First Edition. Octavo. x, [i], 336 pp. With three mounted woodbury type photographs of Kashmiris, wood-engravings in text, three maps on two folding sheets. Very handsome period blue elaborately gilt tooled polished school prize binding full calf with red gilt morocco label. A fine copy.

"In February 1862, following representations by the British military commander of the Punjab and the mediation of Sir Roderick Murchison, Drew resigned the geological survey to enter the service of the maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, Ranbir Singh. He was initially engaged in a mineral reconnaissance of the territories, was then charged with the management of the forest department, and finally, in 1871, was appointed vizier (governor) of the province of Ladakh. In addition, he probably acted unofficially as a British political agent, providing intelligence on a state on India's northern frontier which was considered to be of great strategic importance as a bulwark against Russian expansion. He acquired a detailed knowledge of the geology, topography, and anthropology of the country, which he employed in his major work, The Jummoo and Kashmir Territories: a Geographical Account (1875), which was written following his return to London in 1872. In 1877 he published an abridged, popular account under the title The Northern Barrier of India " (Oxford DNB).

According to Peter Hopkirk, it was Frederic Drew who was in charge of the recovering of George Hayward's body in the Darkot village in the foothills of the Pamir Mountains. Hayward (1839-1870) was a British explorer who had been murdered during his expedition to Pamir, during one of the most tense phases of the Great Game (Hopkirk, Peter. The Great Game, 2006, p.345-346).

"The author made a stay in Kashmir for nine years between 1862 and 1871, and travelled widely in its country. And he discovered how G. Hayward was killed in 1870, and found the burial site" (Yakushi D327).

27. Eden , [Sir] Ashley (1831-1887)

Political Missions to Bootan, comprising the reports of the Hon'ble Ashley Eden, - 1864; Capt. R.B. Pemberton, 1837, 1838, with Dr. W. Griffiths's Journal; and the Account by Baboo Kishen Kant Rose.

Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Office, 1865. First Edition. Octavo. [ii], xi, 206 pp. With a large folding outline hand colored engraved map and a folding topographical engraved profile of the route. Period style light brown gilt tooled half sheep with light brown cloth boards and a light brown gilt morocco label. Map backed on Japanese paper and browned and title page with remnants of old library stamp, otherwise a very good copy.

A collection of early interesting accounts on relations between the British India and the Kingdom of Bhutan in 1860's, which was a time of growing tension between the two countries which resulted in the Duar War (1864-1865). The book includes the account by Sir Ashley Eden, later Governor General of British India. "In 1861 Eden was appointed special envoy to Sikkim and, backed by an army, wrung from the maharaja a treaty guaranteeing free trade and the cessation of raids into British territory. In 1863 he was sent on a similar mission to Bhutan but without the same military support and he found himself taken virtual prisoner by the Bhutanese and forced to sign a treaty humiliating to the British. The insult was amply repaid when Britain went to war against Bhutan in November 1864" (Oxford DNB).

The second account is by Captain Robert Boileau Pemberton (1798-1840) who led a diplomatic mission to Bhutan in 1837-8, together with the account by the member of the same embassy, Doctor William Griffith (1810-1845). The last account is an English translation of the relation by Baboo Kishen Kant Bose. The book is supplemented with a subject index.

The Duar War (1864-65) lasted only five months and, despite some battlefield victories by Bhutanese forces, resulted in Bhutan's defeat, loss of part of its sovereign territory, and forced cession of formerly occupied territories. Under the terms of the Treaty of Sinchula, signed on November 11, 1865, Bhutan ceded territories in the Assam Duars and Bengal Duars, as well as the eighty-three-square-kilometer territory of Dewangiri in southeastern Bhutan, in return for an annual subsidy of 50,000 rupees (Wikipedia). In 1863 Henry Haversham Godwin-Austen joined the "Political mission to Bhutan under Ashley Eden. In 1864 he carried out topographical surveys between Sikkim and Punakha, and produced a detailed map of Bhutan that would remain in use for thirty years" (Howgego 1850-1940 Continental G27).

28. Erdmann , Johann Friedrich (1778-1846)

Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Innern von Russland. [Additions to the Knowledge of the Interior of Russia]:

Erster Theil. Medicinische Topographie des Gouvernements und der Stadt Kasan, nebst mehreren darauf Bezug habenden Historischen, Geografischen, Statistischen und Ethnographischen Notizen. [First Part. Medical topography of the province and city of Kazan, with several historical references, and Geographical, Statistical and Ethnographic Notes];

[With] Zweiter Theil. Reisen im Innern Russlands [Second part. Travels inside Russia [in 2 vols.]].

Riga und Dorpat & Leipzig: J.F. Meinshausen & P.G. Kummer, 1822-6. First and Only Edition. Octavo 3 vols. Second part in two handsome period brown gilt tooled half calfs with marbled board; engraved bookplate on the front endpapers: "Säfstaholms Bibliothek." First part expertly bound to match in period style (heraldic library stamp on the first title page "Bibliothek der Livlaendischen Ritterschaft"), all three volumes housed in a brown custom made slipcase. A near fine set.

Erster Theil. Medicinische Topographie des Gouvernements und der Stadt Kasan, nebst mehreren darauf Bezug habe nden Historischen, Georgafischen, Statistischen und Ethnographischen Notizen. Riga und Dorpat: J.F. Meinshausen, 1822. [viii], vi, 344, [i] pp. With 1 large lithographed plan of Kazan.

Zweiter Theil. Reisen im Innern Russlands [in 2 parts]. Leipzig: P.G. Kummer, 1825-26. xlviii, 366, xlix-l, 18; xii, 288, [vi] pp. With 21 lithographed plates and maps, 7 tables, 18 pages of music notes.

Very interesting travel account of the Central and Lower Volga, Urals and Western Siberia. It is based on seven years travels of a German doctor, professor of medicine Johann Friedrich Erdmann , who graduated from the University of Wittenberg, but most of his life worked in Russia and became a professor of Kazan and Dorpat Universities and a foreign associate of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1810-1817 Erdmann worked in the Kazan University as a professor of therapy and the head of the University Clinic; later he was appointed the inspector of the School district of the whole Kazan province. A devoted and curious traveller, Erdmann widely travelled across the province and visited Saratov, Simbirsk, Astrakhan, Perm, Yekaterinburg and Tobolsk.

This is the only edition of his travel account, which has never been translated into Russian, consisting of two volumes (second in two parts). The first volume is dedicated entirely to the medical infrastructure of the Kazan province and is of significance in its own right. The second volume contains detailed descriptions of all places visited by the author, including the ruins of the famous ancient city of Bolghar, mineral springs in Sergievsk and Tetiusha, Lake Elton (the largest European salt lake), manners and customs of Kalmyks, Votiaks, Permiaks, Ostiaks and Samoeds, German Colonists in Saratow district and others. It also includes a brief history of the Ural factories and mines. The book was highly appreciated by contemporaries and was an important source of information during the 19th century.

The second part is from the famous library of the Swedish art collector and bibliophile Gustav Trolle-Bonde (engraved bookplates on front pastedown endpapers and gilt initials "GTB" on the spines).

Gustav Trolle-Bonde (1773-1855) was a Swedish Count, famous art collector, bibliophile and patron of arts. His father Count Karl Bonde (1741-1791) started collecting objects of art and rare books and built for them the Säfstaholms castle in 1815, which quickly became "the gem of the neighbourhood". Säfstaholms' art collection and library were considered the largest in private hands in Sweden; the art collection included paintings by Titian, Rubens, Frans Hals, Nordic genre painters and sculptors. Many Swedish artists and intellectuals were the permanent guests of the castle during the time of Gustav Trolle-Bonde, including Elias Martin, Pehr Hillström, Gustaf Sandberg, Wilhelm Wallander and Erik Gustaf Geijer.

Polovtsev's Russian Biographical Dictionary online.

29. Gebler , Friedrich August von (1782-1850)

Übersicht des Katunischen Gebirges, der Höchsten Spitze des Russischen Altai [Overview of the Katun Mountains, the Highest Peaks of Russian Altai]. Published as vol. III of "Memoires des Savans Etrangers."

[Saint Petersburg], [1837]. First Edition. Quarto. [2], 455-560 pp. With one folding engraved map of the source of Katun river and the Katun range with the highest peak, Mount Belukha. Recent period style marbled papered boards with printed paper label mounted on cover. A very good copy.

First comprehensive description of the Katun Mountains and its peak, Mount Belukha (4506 m.), which is also the highest peak in the Altai Mountains and Siberia. Mount Belukha is the part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site entitled the Golden Mountains of Altai.

August Friedrich von Gebler was a German doctor, naturalist and geographer, who worked for most of his life in Barnaul in the Russian Altai. He had a successful career and became the head of the medical and pharmaceutical institutions of the Altai province, later worked as the Chief Doctor of Kolyvano-Voskresenskiy industrial district. Gebler travelled widely through the Altai for all his life, collected a huge herbarium of Altai plants (1200 specimens including 15 hitherto unknown), published numerous articles about the region and its mountains, lakes, flora and fauna, population. He was a pioneer of Altai entomology and discovered many new species of insects which were named Gebleri after him. Gebler was a member of several scientific societies of Russia and Europe, an associate member of Russian Academy of Sciences (since 1833). He actively promoted medicine and health care, helped to found the first museum in Barnaul and was awarded with three orders of the Russian Empire.

The Overview of the Katun Mountains for the first time describes the Belukha glaciers and shows the first map of the region; describes the geology of the Katun Mountains and their flora and fauna; locates the source of the Katun River, one of the largest in Altai. Gebler crossed the territory of the mountainous and steppe Altai, including the vicinities of Barnaul, Semipalatinsk, Zmeinogorsk, Ridders mine, basin of rivers Katun, Chuya, Bukhtarma, Belaya, Argut etc. The largest glacier of Belukha is named after Gebler to commemorate his discovery (Wikipedia). Polovtsev's Russian Biographical Dictionary online.

30. Gerard , Capt. Alexander (1792-1839)

Account of Koonawur, in the Himalaya, etc, etc, etc. By the late Capt. Alexander Gerard. Edited by George Lloyd.

London: James Madden & Co, 1841. First Edition. Octavo. xiii, 308, xxvi pp. With a large folding engraved map. With a photograph of mountainous river valley, 13,8 x 10 cm, pencil inscription on verso “Side khad. Bilasfiur – left bank. Four hours above Bilaspur” (most likely this is Bilaspur city in the state of Himachal Pradesh in India). Also with a small printed note from the Commander-in-chief, dated ‘Simla, 5-9-19'. Recent black gilt tooled full polished morocco. A partially uncut near fine copy.

One of the first accounts of the Western Himalaya, the book contains detailed descriptions of the boundaries and passes of Kinnaur and Ladakh districts of India, Western Tibet, rivers Sutley, Spiti and Baspa, manners and customs of its inhabitants, local trade routes etc. Additionally, Gerard was one of the first to describe altitude sickness: "On lofty mountains a depression of spirits and bodily debility, accompanied with severe head-aches, fullness in the head, oppression at the breast, and difficulty of respiration with now and then pains in the ears, affect every body in a greater or less degree; this arises from the rarefaction of the atmosphere<...> Those who cross the outer chain, attribute these symptoms to the noxious qualities of a poisonous plant; but the best informed, who are in the habit of traversing heights where there is no vegetation, know well that they are produced by the height alone..." .

"First appointed to conduct a survey of Saharanpur district in the upper Ganges Jumna Doab in 1814, Gerard later moved to the town of Sabathu (at modern state Himachal Pradesh of India) which became the base of Gerard's future expeditions. In the summer of 1817, accompanied by Dr George Govan, he executed one of the first expeditions to the Sutlej valley in the Himalayas, an area then relatively unknown to Europeans. In September 1818 Gerard and his brother James set out from Sabathu on a two-month journey across the Sutlej and northwards up the Spiti River to Shipki.

In June 1821 Gerard, initially accompanied by James, departed from Sabathu on his longest Himalayan journey. On 8 June they ascended the treacherous Shatul Pass (where in the previous year two of James's servants had frozen to death in a snowdrift), detoured to visit Yusu Pass in the east and then travelled on to the Borendo Pass (approximately 15,100 feet). The cold was extreme and the local guides refused to camp at altitude, leaving Gerard and his brother huddled in a tent with their ten servants, whom they had brought from the plains, smoking hookahs and drinking cherry brandy. From the Borendo Pass they crossed over to the Baspa valley before, on 23 June, James was obliged to return to duty. After exploring the ridges to the south of the Sutlej, on 24 July Gerard crossed the Keobarang Pass (18,313 feet), but just before Bekhur was prevented by Tibetan frontier guards (‘Chinese Tartars') from penetrating further east into Tibet, Lake Manasarowar, source of the Sutlej, having been his object. Turned back at two more points by courteous but unyielding Tibetan officials, Gerard then travelled back down the Sutlej, crossed the Manirang Pass and, this time heading north-west, reached Manes, on the road to Leh, capital of Ladakh, on 31 August. Here too he was refused permission to proceed, whereupon he began his return journey, reaching Kotgarh (not far from Shimla) on 24 September. Disappointed at not having entered Tibet, Gerard had nevertheless amassed a vast amount of geographical information which he converted into beautifully drawn maps" (Oxford DNB). Howgego 1800-1850 G7; Yakushi G68.

31. Goebel , Karl Christian Traugott Friedemann (1794-1851)

Reise in die Steppen des Südlichen Russlands [Travels in the Steppes of Southern Russia].

Dorpat [Tartu, Estonia]: C. A. Kluge, 1837-8. First Edition. Quarto 2 vols & Folio Atlas. [2], xvi, [2], 328; viii, 372 pp. Atlas volume with eighteen lithographs on plates. Text volumes original publisher's light blue printed papered boards and atlas period brown elaborately gilt tooled quarter calf with marbled boards with front lithographed wrapper with list of plates bound in. Bound without the separately published map which is nearly always missing. A very good set.

Important account of Goebel's scientific travels in 1834 across the Saratov and Astrakhan provinces, Crimea, and the Caspian and Kirghiz steppes. One of the main goals of the expedition was to examine the salt lakes of Southern Russia; this resulted in the determination of the chemical composition of water from 11 lakes in the Caspian steppe and 4 lakes in Crimea. The expedition also determined and specified the altitude of several points between the rivers Volga and Ural, and between the Caspian and Black seas, in particular, the altitude of the Elton Lake. For his work, Goebel was awarded with half the Demidov Prize of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The first volume contains the travel narrative, including ethnographical materials about the Kirghiz and Turkmen people, and the German colonies in the Volga region (Sarepta, Saratov). The second volume is dedicated to the natural history results including chemistry, mineralogy, botany, barometrical observations etc. The whole botanical division (105 pp.) was written by a young botanist and chemist Carl Claus (1796-1864), future researcher of platinum ore and the discoverer of ruthenium. Claus, a talented draftsman, made all drawings for the atlas which includes artistic lithographic views of the salt lakes and landscapes, ethnographical scenes from Kirghiz life and botanical sketches.

Carl Christian Traugott Friedemann Goebel was a chemist and pharmacist, professor of Jena and Dorpat Universities, and founder of the first Russian pharmaceutical institute (Dorpat, 1844). Henze II, p360-1; Pritzel 3423.

32. Goldsmid , Sir Frederic John (1818-1908) et al.

Eastern Persia, An Account of the Journey of the Persian Boundary Commission 1870-71-72: Vol. 1: The Geography with Narratives by Majors St. John, Lovett, and Euan Smith and an Introduction by Major-General Sir Frederic John Goldsmith; Vol. 2: The Zoology and Geology by W.T. Blanford.

London: Macmillan and Co., 1876. First Edition. Octavo. 2 vols. lviii; [i]; viii ; 443; 516 pp. Vol. 1: With a woodcut frontispiece, one colored lithographed plate and three folded colored maps. Vol. 2: With a chromolithographed frontispiece, seventeen chromolithographed plates of mammals and birds by Keulemans, ten black and white lithographed plates of reptiles by Ford mainly from Southern Persia and Baluchistan and one folding colored map. Original publisher's dark green gilt cloth. A very good set.

The leader of the expedition Major-General Sir Frederic John Goldsmid served for the East India Company's army and supervised the establishment of the Indo-European Telegraph in 1861-1870. Being an expert in Hindustani, Persian, Turkish and Arabic, in 1870 he was "was appointed a commissioner for the delimitation of the boundary between Persia and Baluchistan. His award was eventually accepted by the shah's government. In the same year Goldsmid was entrusted with the even more delicate task of investigating the claims of Persia and Afghanistan to the province of Sistan. The arbitral award was published at Tehran on 19 August 1872; Persia was confirmed in the possession of Sistan, while a section of the Helmand was left in Afghan territory. The impartiality of the award satisfied neither party, but it had the desired effect of keeping the peace" (Oxford DNB).

The account of the expedition is divided into four sections: Narrative of the Journey; Geography; Geology; and Zoology. The Zoology and Geology sections comprising the second volume were produced by William Thomas Blanford (1832-1905). "In 1871 Blanford... Began what was perhaps his most important surveying appointment the India-Persia boundary commission. In connection with this work he visited Baluchistan, Tehran, the Alborz mountains, and the Caspian Sea. He returned to England through Russia and Moscow in September 1872. His extensive travels in the region resulted in his contribution on the geology and zoology in An Account of the Journeys of the Persian Boundary Commission (1876)" (Oxford DNB).

"One of the most important books on the region" (Ghani p. 153); "During the course of this work, in 1871-72, he travelled inland from Bandar-e 'Abbas to Kerman, then southeast through little-known regions of Baluchistan to arrive on the coast to the west of Karachi. Returning to Tehran, he continued along the ancient caravan route through Yazd and Kerman, then turned northwest to explore Sistan province on the border of Afghanistan. From here he made his way north to Mashhad and returned along the established route to Tehran" (Howgego 1850-1940 Continental, G31).

33. Grosier , Jean Baptiste Gabriel Alexandre (1743-1823)

Description Générale de la Chine, Contenant, 1°. La Description topographique des quinze Provinces qui forment cet Empire, celle de la Tartarie.... [A General Description Of China: Containing The Topography Of The Fifteen Provinces Which Compose This Vast Empire; That Of Tartary, The Isles, And Other Tributary Countries].

Paris: Chez Moutard, 1787. First Illustrated Edition. Octavo, 2 vols. xxiv, 647; [iv] , 512 pp. With an engraved folding map and fifteen copper engraved folding plates. 19th century brown gilt tooled quarter calf with marbled boards and brown gilt morocco labels. A very good set.

“It is a general description of China, originally intended as the 13th volume of De Mailla's history of China. Very rich in the observation and detail amassed by the Jesuits. Picture of an attractive country before semi-colonization set in" (Lust 30); A general survey covering the main Chinese provinces, Chinese Tartary, the bordering states, natural history of China, Chinese government, religion, manners and customs; and the literature, arts and sciences. "A considerable part of the work is devoted to natural history" (China Illustrata Nova II, 646 &651); Cordier Sinica 61; Cox I p.343.

34. Hamilton , Charles, Esq (1752/3-1792)

An Historical Relation of the Origin, Progress, and Final Dissolution of the Government of the Rohilla Afghans in the Northern Provinces of Hindostan. Compiled from a Persian Manuscript and other Original Papers.

London: Printed for G. Kearsley, 1787. First Edition. Octavo. xvii , 298 pp. Original grey papered boards rebacked in style with beige paper and printed paper label. A very good copy.

Charles Hamilton, Esq. An Officer in the Service of the Honourable East-India Company on the Bengal Establishment. The Rohillas, described by Macaulay as “the finest population in India” were military adventurers from Afghanistan who had entered India some 35 years earlier and settled in Rohilkind, a stretch of country between the Ganges and Himalayas on the north-western borders of Oudh. In 1774 Shuja-ud-daula, with the assistance of a brigade of the East India Company's troops provided by Warren Hastings, invaded Rohilkind, killing their principal chief, Hafiz Rahmat, and annexing the country. This action figured later in the charges against Hasting during his impeachment. Hamilton, a lieutenant in the Indian army, served in the campaign against the Rohillas where he collected materials for this, his first book. He was a noted orientalist, and one of the first members of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta. In 1791, whilst in England, he was appointed resident at the court if the grand vizier at Oudh, but died, aged 39, before he could take up the appointment. A second edition was published in 1788. Cox I, p 256; Bibliography of Afghanistan 2480.

"A student of oriental languages, Hamilton was one of the first members of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. During an expedition against the Rohillas of Afghanistan he obtained a collection of Persian manuscripts from which he wrote his Historical relation of the origin, progress, and final dissolution of the government of the Rohilla Afghans in the northern provinces of Hindostan (1787). In the year before its publication Hamilton gained permission to return home for five years in order to translate from the Persian the Hedaya (published in 1791 as Hedaya, or, Guide), a commentary on Muslim laws, for which task he had been selected by the governor-general and council of Bengal" (Oxford DNB).

35. Hanway , Jonas (1712-1786)

An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea. With a Journal of Travels from London through Russia into Persia; and back Through Russia, Germany and Holland. To which are added, The revolutions of Persia during the present century, with the particular history of the great usurper Nadir Kouli.

London: Dodsley et al, 1753. First Edition. Quarto, 4 vols. bound in 3. xx, 399; xv, [i], 374, [15]; xv, 255; xv, [i], 301, [20] pp. With four copper engraved frontispieces, fifteen other copper engraved plates and nine folding engraved maps. Later period style brown gilt tooled quarter calf with grey papered boards and red and green gilt morocco labels. A very good set.

The author "travelled to Russia in 1743 where he entered into a partnership with a certain Mr. Dingley, a merchant at St. Petersburg. In that year Hanway set out southward from Moscow with a caravan of woollen goods, followed the Volga and the western shores of the Caspian Sea, and arrived in Persia where he traded in the north of the country and along the Caspian coast. While there, according to his narrative published in 1753, he suffered many hardships and adventures. At Astrabad, his furthest east, he was robbed by Qajar rebels but, after visiting the shah at Hamadan, won compensation for his stolen goods. He returned in 1745 by way of the Caspian and Volga, and in 1750 returned to London, where, having amassed a considerable fortune, he retired from trade and 1753 published an account of his travels" (Howgego H21).

"Hanway was a well known traveller and philanthropist, popularly remembered as the pioneer user of the umbrella" (Cox I, p. 255); "One of the earliest accounts of the Caspian region by a European" (Ghani p. 167). "On 18 February 1743 he joined the Russia Company as junior partner with Charles Dingley and Henry Klencke, and took ship for Riga in April, and thence travelled overland to St Petersburg, where he was soon engaged in fitting out an expedition to Persia by way of the Caspian Sea. Hanway's mission was to sell English broadcloth for Persian silk and to evaluate the potential of trade with Persia, then ruled by the last great steppe conqueror, Shah Nadir Kuli Khan (1688-1747). A trans-Caspian trade had been pioneered by the Muscovy Company in 1566, but it was a tenuous link, dependent on political stability in central Asia and the co-operation of rulers in both Persia and Russia both of which were distant hopes in Hanway's time.

With only an English clerk, a Russian menial servant, a Tartar boy, and a Russian soldier, Hanway travelled to Moscow and thence to Astrakhan, where he boarded a British ship, the Empress of Russia, which conveyed him across the Caspian to Langarud. His destination was Mashhad, but his caravan was captured on the way by rebellious Khyars, allied to Turkomans from the steppes to the north. Robbed of his goods, and forced to flee in disguise along the bleak southern shores of the Caspian, he was rescued by merchant colleagues. He was later partially compensated by Nadir Shah, who desired cordial relations with the British in order to enlist British artisans to construct a Persian navy for the Caspian. However, Hanway, and those who sent him, had underestimated the insecurity of the route while exaggerating the potential of the trade. In retrospect he concluded that the trade held no great promise, for Persia was too poor and Russia was wholly disinclined to see the expansion of Persian power on its southern frontier. From these adventures he derived his motto in later life, ‘Never Despair'. Hanway spent the next five years in St Petersburg, trying to revive his trade and reputation, before he returned to Britain via Germany and the Netherlands, in October 1750" (Oxford DNB).

First Comprehensive Russian Book on China by the father of Russian sinology

With Important Additions to Krusenstern's Circumnavigation Account

36. Iakinf , [Bichurin, Nikita Jakovlevich] (1777-1853)

Kitai, Ego Zhiteli, Nravi, Obichai, Prosveshchenie [China, Its Inhabitants, Manners, Customs, Education].

Saint Petersburg: Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1840. First Edition. Octavo. viii, 442, [2] pp. With a copper engraved table. Period brown half sheep with marbled boards, expertly recased. Spine with renewed gilt ornaments and new black gilt lettered sheep label. Chinese stamp on title page, a photograph of a Chinese building with a Chinese stamp on the first end paper (exlibris?). Mild foxing throughout, otherwise a very good copy.

Very Rare as only eight copies found in Worldcat.

The most valuable aspect of the book is that it's based on a multi-volume Great Quing Legal Code , a primary source about the Chinese Empire of the Great Quing (1644-1912). It was father Iakinf who for the first time presented this important source to the Russian scientific community. The original edition of the Code was purchased in Peking by the Russian Orthodox Mission and brought to Saint Petersburg in 1832. Beacuse of the exceptional value of the Code which contained detailed intelligence on Quing Empire's economy, state institutions and army, the Council of the Mission decided to treat it as "a secret book," which shouldn't be shown to everyone.

Iakinf's work contains descriptions of the Chinese language and writing; brief statistical information about Chinese nature and state; an overview of the educational system; criminal law; social and private life (including cuisine, costumes, holidays, wedding and funeral ceremonies, shamanism). Separate chapters are dedicated to the only Chinese newspaper Tsin-Bao (Capital Newsletter) and Chinese philosophy, in particular to I Ching ( Book of Changes ), with the scheme on a separate plate.

Very interesting are Iakinf's commentaries to the answers and questions about China published in the account of Ivan Krusenstern's famous circumnavigation (SPb., 1809-1812). Iakinf corrects and supplements the answers to 27 questions which Krusenstern asked while in Canton, as the answers "given by English merchants in Canton are brief and not always correct." This chapter contains information about Chinese money lending, slavery, trade, paper money, guilds and trade unions, post office, food, art and crafts etc. Iakinf sometimes criticises European sinologists noting for example that the infanticide is not a common custom in China, but a criminal offence. The supplement contains tables of the French and English ways of writing Chinese sounds.

Nikita Yakovlevich Bichurin better known under his monastic name Iakinf, was one of the founding fathers of Sinology. For 14 years he served in the Russian orthodox mission in Pekin, translated a number of ancient and medieval Chinese manuscripts, which had hitherto been unknown in Europe; published many volumes on Chinese and Mongolian history, geography, religion, statistics, and agriculture. In 1837 he opened the first Chinese-language school in the Russian Empire. For his sinological contributions, he was elected to the Russian, German, and French Academies of Sciences (Polovtsev's Russian Biographical Dictionary online). A prominent German Orientalist Julius Klaproth (1783-1835) noted that father Iakinf alone had done as much as was possible only for a whole scientific society.

Cordier Sinica 76; Lust 33.

37. Iakinf , [Bichurin, Nikita Jakovlevich] (1777-1853)

Sobranie Svedenii o Narodah, Obitavshih v Srednei Azii v Drevnie Vremena [A Collection of Information About the People Who Lived in Central Asia in Ancient Times]: in Three Parts.

With: Idem. Geograficheskii Ukazatel Mest na Karte k Istorii Drevnih Sredneaziiskih Narodov [A Geographical Index for the History of the Ancient People of Central Asia].

Saint Petersburg: Typ. Voenno-Uchebnykh Zavedenii, 1851. First Edition. Octavo. Both works bound together. First work: parts I (section ii), II and III (lacks part I section i); [2], iv, 205-484; [2], ii, iv, 179; [2], vi, 273 pp. Second work: [2], 115, [1] pp.; lacks last pages numbered i-vii. With large folding lithographed map 67x149 cm (26x59 inches), outline handcolored. Recent brown half calf, gilt tooled spine with raised bands and gilt lettered green label and light brown cloth boards. Margins cut for the later binding. Library stamps and markings on title pages (mostly of the first part), paper slightly browned, pp. 285-300 of the first part bound upside down, minor tears on folds of the map. Overall a very good strong copy of this rare edition.

Very rare as only nine copies found in Worldcat.

Father Iakinf's last epochal Sinological work which is a translation of original Chinese historical sources dedicated to the ancient people of Central Asia. Iakinf translated the chapters "Narrations on foreign people" from the famous Twenty-Four Histories , one of the most important sources on Chinese history and culture, organized accordingly to ruling dynasties and covering period from 3000 BC to the 17th century. Where necessary he supplemented them with the extracts from Zizhi Tongjian Gangmu , the compilation of a universal history of China which became the pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography (12th century).

Original Chinese texts included in the book date mostly from 2nd century BC to 9th century AD and describe the ancient tribes of Manchuria and Korea, Mongolia, Southern Siberia, Eastern Turkestan and Central Asia. The book was written on assignment of Russian Academy of Sciences and became especially timely as in 1847 Russian troops started their advance in Central Asia. The map shows the area from Aral Sea to Manchuria and Sakhalin; Russian frontiers in the north, Mongolia and Northern China in the south.

Iakinf's translation from Chinese is of exceptional quality and completeness, and his work quickly became the main reference book for historians of Central Asian people. It's still a significant historical source "as after it had been published neither in Russia nor in Europe were created works equal in the size and quality of translation. Only partial continuations of his translations (by V.P. Vasiliev and E. Bretshneider) or translations of Chinese historical texts on specific topics were published, but they can't replace Iakinf's work. A work by d'Hervey de Saint-Denys approaches Iakinf's in its plan and contents, but is inferior to "Sobranie" in its size and quality.., Bichurin did for the first time what the best European scientists started to do in full scale much later"(Sobranie Svedenii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1950-53, 3 vols.).


For his humongous work on extracting the information from the Chinese sources father Iakinf was awarded with his fourth Demidov Award from Russian Academy of Sciences. His book quite quickly became a rarity, but the second Russian edition was published by the Soviet Academy of Sciences only in 1950-1953.

38. Kozlov , Pyotr Kuzmich, (1863-1935)

Kratkie Otcheti Ekspeditsii po Issledovaniiu Severnoi Mongolii v Sviazi s Mongolo-Tibetskoi Ekspetitsiei P.K. Kozlova. [Brief Account of the Kozlov Expedition to Mongolia-Tibet].

Leningrad, USSR: Academy of Sciences, 1925. First and Only Edition. Octavo. [4], 58 pp. With nineteen black and white plates. Original publisher's gray printed wrappers, title page and table of contents in Russian and French. Spine with minor chip at foot, otherwise a very good copy.

First publication of the results of the famous excavation of the Noin-Ula Kurgans in Northern Mongolia. The book contains articles by the leader of the expedition P.K. Kozlov (Northern Mongolia and the artefacts of Noin-Ula), S.A. Teploukhov (Excavations of the Kurgan in Noin-Ula), G.I. Borovka (Cultural and historical significance of the discovered artefacts), B.B. Polinov (Mongolian soils) and V.I. Krzhizhanovskii (About Mongolian jewels). It was published as soon as the first reports of the expedition arrived to the USSR Academy of Sciences. Kozlov's official diaries of the expedition Travel to Mongolia, 1923-1926 weren't published until 1949.

Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov was a prominent Russian traveler and explorer of Mongolia and Tibet, a member of Russian Geographical Society. Kozlov was Nikolai Przhevalsky's assistant and continued his studies in Central Asia. He participated in Przhevalsky's, Pevtsov and Roborovsky's expeditions; in 1899-1901 under his command the Mongolian-Tibetan expedition explored the upper reaches of Huang He, Yangtze, and Mekong rivers. During the first decade of the 20th century, when the Great Game reached its peak, Kozlov rivalled Sven Hedin and Aurel Stein as the foremost researcher of Xinjiang (Western Region) and he visited the Dalai Lama in 1905. During the expedition of 1907-1909, Kozlov explored the Gobi Desert and discovered the remains of Khara-Khoto, a Tangut city ruined by the Ming Chinese during 1372. It took him several years to excavate the site and bring to St. Petersburg no less than 2,000 books in the Tangut language he uncovered there (Wikipedia).

His last expedition to Mongolia and Tibet (1923-1926) resulted in discovery of an unprecedented number of Xiongnu royal burials at Noin-Ula. According to one of the historical theories they could be the famous Hunns who invaded Europe in 4th century AD. The artefacts in the Kurgans date from the 2nd century BC to 1st century AD and include golden figures and jewellery, pottery, artefacts made of bronze, copper, amber, clothes, shoes etc. Some amazing samples of 2000-year-old Bactrian textiles were discovered, the Noin-Ula collection of them (now in the Hermitage) is the best in the world. Kozlov's discoveries of the Dead city Khara-Khoto and the Noin-Ula Kurgans are among the most outstanding archaeological discoveries of the 20th century. Howgego, Continental Exploration 1850-1940, K21.

39. Kravcheko , Nikolai Ivanovich (1867-1941)

Na Voinu! Pisma, Vospominaniia, Ocherki Voennogo Korrespondenta [To the War! Letters, Memoirs and Essays of a War Correspondent].

Saint Petersburg: R. Golike and A. Vilborg Partnership, 1905. First Edition. Quarto. [6], 181 pp. With a color plate frontispiece, two other plates (one in color), and numerous illustrations in text. Original publisher's reddish brown full morocco, gilt tooled and lettered on the spine and the front cover. Front publisher's wrapper (with mounted color plate) bound in. All edges gilt. Corners and spine extremities very mildly rubbed, otherwise a very good clean copy.

Interesting vivid notes about the Russian Japanese war 1904-1905 written by a Russian artist who witnessed its main events. As a war correspondent of Saint Petersburg newspaper Novoe Vremia Kravchenko crossed Russia by the Trans-Siberian railway and Manchuria by the Chinese Eastern Railway, visiting all of Manchuria's major cities: Harbin, Mukden (Shenyang), Liaoyang and Port Arthur. He described the Battle of Port Arthur and its consequent blockade by the Japanese fleet, the Battle of Yaly river; loss of the flagship of the Russian fleet, the battleship Petropavlovsk with the commander of the fleet admiral Makarov and famous Russian painter Vasiliy Vereshchagin; life in Manchuria during the time of war. The book was published as a deluxe richly illustrated edition and includes numerous Kravchenko's sketches and photographs of Russian army and fleet, views of Chinese cities, locals and their everyday life.

Nikolai Kravchenko was a known Russian painter of battle scenes and portraits of the Russian Army elite. He studied at the Saint Petersburg Academy of Arts and École des beaux arts in Paris. In 1902 Kravchenko travelled to China to illustrate Russian Army campaign there and created several hundred sketches. He had a special audience with the Russian Emperor Nicolas II and showed him the sketches; later his works were exhibited in Saint Petersburg, Moscow and London. In 1904 he published a book based on the travel To China . Kravchenko was an eyewitness of the main events of the Russian-Japanese war and gave his impressions in his book To the War! He painted a large portrait of Nicolas II and in 1913 painted a big picture "The Capture of Pekin" on assignment for the Emperor. (Russian Encyclopaedia of War).

40. Makarenko , Alexei Alexeevich (1860-1942)

Sibirskii Narodnii Kalendar v Etnograficheskom Otnoshenii. Vostochnaia Sibir. Eniseiskaia Gubernia [Siberian Folk Calendar in Ethnographical Prospective. Eastern Siberia. Yenisei Province]. Published as vol. 36 of "Zapiski Russkogo Geograficheskogo Obschestva po Otdeleniiu Etnografii" (The Proceedings of the Ethnographical Department of Russian Geographical Society /ed. By A.S. Ermolov).

Saint Petersburg: State Typography, 1913. First Edition. Large Octavo. [4], vii, 293 pp. With sixteen photographic plates. Period style red half morocco with marbled boards, gilt lettered spine with raised bands. Front publisher's printed wrapper bound in. A near fine copy.

First comprehensive ethnographic study of the religious and folk holidays and festivities in Eastern Siberia, in particular in the Yenisei province (Krasnoyarsk, Achinsk, Minusinsk). The author focuses mostly on Russian peasants and locals who had converted to Orthodox Christianity, but notes that paganism and superstitions of the natives highly influenced the traditions and mentality of the Russian settlers. Makarenko describes Siberian folk festivities for every day of the year, their character, way of celebration and place in people's life. Illustrations are interesting photographs of Siberian peasants, their everyday activities, costumes, scenes of dances and games. The supplement contains the alphabet and subject Indexes of Siberian holidays; bibliography of the main works on the topic (p. 251-256); oral Siberian calendar from a blind Siberian peasant Chima, known for his phenomenal memory.

Important account on the Russian Advance in Central Asia During the Great Game

41. Maksheev , Alexei Ivanovich (1822-1892)

Geograficheskie, Etnograficheskie i Statisticheskie Materiali o Turkestanskom Krae [Geographical, Ethnographical and Statistical Materials on Turkestan] .

In: Zapiski Imperatorskogo Russkogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva po Otdeleniiu Statistiki [Proceedings of the Statistical Department of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society]. Vol. 2.

St. Petersburg: K. Vulf, 1871. First Edition. Large Octavo. [4], ii, 383 pp. With a folding lithographed map with borders in outline hand coloring. Period style green quarter sheep, spine gilt lettered and with raised bands, green cloth boards. Library markings on the title and page 1, Soviet bookseller's stamps on the last page, otherwise a very good strong copy.

Early interesting account on Russian Turkestan, containing the first demographical research of local tribes. In 1867 just after the Turkestan Governor-Generalship had been formed, A. Maksheev travelled there on assignment of the Russian government. He departed from Orsk and went to Fort Perovsky, Chimkent, Verny (Alma-Ata) and Semipalatinsk. Maksheev described the territories and borders of Russian Turkestan; the history of the Russian advance from Orenburg and Western Siberia, he lists all the cities under Russian occupation at the time and the main postal routes, noting the distances between the points. He also gives an account of local climate and people; and he supplemented the article with bibliography of main travel accounts and sources of geographical and statistical information about Turkestan.

Maksheev drew one of the first maps of Russian Turkestan which shows its borders from the Aral Sea in the west to the Chinese border in the east and southern borders with still independent Kokand, Bokhara and Khiva Khanates. The map outlines two main parts of the province, the Syr Daya and Semirechensk districts, Balkhash and Issyk Kul lakes, the Aral Sea, points occupied by Russians and natives, roads, ancient cities, graveyards, fortresses and wells.

This was a very timely publication as while the issue was in print, the Russian army under K. Kaufman occupied Samarkand and upper valley of Zeravshan thus expanding the borders of Russian Turkestan. Alexei Maksheev was a Russian general, professor of the General Staff Academy, a traveller and a member of Russian Geographical Society (1855). He made a career in the eastern frontiers of Russia, Kighisian and Kasakhstan steppes, the Aral Sea and Turkestan. His main work was History of Turkestan and Russian Advance there (SPb., 1891).

The issue also includes the articles "Travel notes about Hankou and Russian Tea Plantations" by Afanasii Popov (1828-1870), translator of the Russian embassy in Peking; "Trade between Russia and Mongolia and its future" by V. Radlov and others.

Venetian Renaissance Travellers to Persia, Muscovy, Africa and India

42. Manuzio , Antonio (1511-1559). [BARBARO, Giosafat (1413-1494); CONTARINI, Ambrogio (? -1499); RONCINOTTO, Luigi; RAMBERTI, Beneditto]

Viaggi Fatti Da Vinetia, Alla Tana, In Persia, In India, Et In Constantinopoli: con la Descrittione Particolare di Citta, Luoghi, siti, Costumi, & della PORTA del gran TURCO : & modo di gouerno suo, & della ultima Impresa contra Porgoghesi [Facts about Travels from Venice to Tanais, Persia, India and Constantinople: with a Description of Particular Cities, Places, Sites, Costumes and of Great Porta of Turks; and of the Last Company against Portuguese] / ed. Antonio Manuzio.

Venice: Aldus, 1545. Second Edition. Small Octavo. 163 numbered leaves. Engraved emblem of the Aldine's press on title page. Text printed in italic types; empty spaces with guide letters left for manuscript initials, as usual for these small Aldines. Elaborate 16th century style brown full calf with gilt decorated borders; gilt lettered and decorated spine with raised bands. Very good strong copy with interesting old brown ink marginalia in text.

Important collection of seven travels, executed by Venetian emissaries and merchants to Persia, Muscovy, Africa and India in 15th and 16th centuries. It is one of very few travel books to be published by the Aldine Press. This second edition was published two years after the first, and is "hardly more common than the previous, although a much better printed" (Renouard 134, 18).

The book contains highly significant first publications of accounts of Giosafat Barbaro's two voyages to Genoese colony Tana on the Sea of Azov in 1436 and to Persia in 1471. Barbaro was a Venetian diplomat, merchant, explorer and travel writer. His accounts contain precious information about Persia, Georgia, Crimea, Russia and Poland, much of which is not found in any other sources.

Also important is the description of Ambrogio Contarini's voyage to Persia in 1473-77. He was a Venetian diplomat and traveler who was sent to Uzun Hasan, the ruler of Western Iran (Persia), with a proposal to start a war against Turkey in alliance with Venice. Contarini visited Austria, Poland, Ukraine and the Crimea, and finally came to Isfahan in 1475, where he met Giosafat Barbaro, who had been sent there a year before. On his return trip Contarini visited Moscow (September 1475 to January 1476), where he was received by Tsar Ivan III Vasil'evich. Contarini's account contains valuable information on Persia, Russia, the Ukraine, Poland, Georgia, Azerbaijan, the Crimea, and the Astrakhan Khanate. Both Barbaro's and Contarini's works were also included in Giovanne Baptista Ramusio's "Navigationi e viaggi" (vol. 2, Venice, 1559).

There are also two accounts of Luigi Roncinotto's (named Aloigi de Giovanni) travels to Calcutta through Egypt, Ethiopia, Arabian Desert and Persia 1529-1532. Roncinotto went as far as Sumatra and mentioned, that in 1532 he left Lisbon on carvel of messer Andrea Colombo, "a grandson of courageous and honorable Captain Christopher Columbus, the first inventor of navigation to West Indies".

The book also includes the relation of Benedetto Ramberti's travel to Constantinople in 1533-34 (it already had been published by Aldine Press in 1539) which describes the Ottoman Empire under the rule of Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-1566), Constantinople and its district Pera (modern Galata) which was a colony of the Republic of Genoa between 1273 and 1453.

There's also an Anonymous account describing the Siege of the Portuguese fort Diu (on the north-western coast of India) held in 1538 by the Ottoman governor of Egypt Suleyman Pasha. Ottoman troops were joined by several Venetian galleys under command of noble Antonio Barbarigo. The Venetians participated unwillingly as their galleys had been captured by the Turks in Alexandria in 1537 after the war between Venice and the Porta had started the same year. Antonio Barbarigo stayed in captivity until 1541, and maybe, his courage and the obstacles he had to overcome were the reason why "Viaggi Fatti" was dedicated to him (see below). The anonymous Venetian author who took part in the campaign (as some note, a boatswain), describes the events in a form of diary, day by day, and adds interesting observations on Indian customs, manners and costumes (Filippo, P. Biografia del viaggiatori Italiani, Roma, 1882; Kerr, R. A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels in 18 vols. Vol. 4. 1824).

"Viaggi Fatti" was compiled by Antonio Manutius, a son of Aldus Manutius. The book is supplemented with his Preface, dedicated to "magnifico messer Antonio Barbarigo". One of the purposes of the collection was to glorify Venetian enterprise; another was "to give Venetians trustworthy (i.e. written by compatriots) news of Portuguese activities in the East" (Lach 1, pp. 180-181, quoted after Sotheby's).

Our copy contains interesting period marginalia generally concerning the ‘Persian' parts of the text. It underlines the high interest of a reader in Persia, perhaps proving that "these early communications between Venetians and Persia, although made for political purposes, is an event in travel history and that of civilization" (Hoefer XI, 646); Atabey 761 (first edition); Blackmer Sale 209.

43. Meinshausen , Karl Friedrich (1819-1899)

Nachrichten über das Wilui-Gebiet in Ostsibirien. Mit eine Karte [New Information about the Vilyuy district in the Eastern Siberia. With a Map]. Published as vol. 26 of "Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Russischen Reichs und der angrenzenden Länder Asiens" (ed. By K.E. V. Baer and Gr. V. Helmersen).

Saint Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1871. First Edition. Large Octavo. [4], xii, 246 pp. With one folding lithographed map. Period style brown gilt tooled half calf with marbled boards, original blue printed front wrapper is bound in at the back. A near fine copy.

One of the first published descriptions of the First Vilyuy Expedition (1853-1855) under the command of the famous explorer of Eastern Siberia Richard Maak (1825-1886). This was the first scientific enterprise of the newly formed Eastern-Siberian Department of the Russian Geographical Society (formed in 1851). The expedition explored the Valley of Viluyu River (the longest tributary of the river Lena) which was at the time the remotest and the least known part of the Eastern Siberia. The travellers visited Vilyuysk, Olekminsk, Yakutsk and numerous settlements amidst Vilyuy forest and swamps.

This account is mainly devoted to the botanical research of the expedition. The author, an associate of the Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Karl Friedrich Meinshausen , systematizes the huge herbarium collected during the expedition (2300 plants) and presents 352 new species of plants. In preliminary chapter he also briefly describes the history, borders and geography of the Vilyuy region, its main rivers, lakes, settlements and their inhabitants; the route of the expedition. This research significantly contributed in the development of botany, and was used as a basis of the botanical part of the official account of the expedition, first published only six years later "Vilyuy Region of the Yakutskaya province" (3 vols, SPb., 1877-1887).

Richard Maak was a Russian naturalist, geographer, and anthropologist, a member of the Siberian branch of the Russian Geographical Society, most known for his exploration of the Russian Far East and Siberia, particularly the Ussuri and Amur River valleys. He wrote some of the first scientific descriptions of the natural history of remote Siberia and collected many biological specimens, many of which were original type specimens of previously unknown species. Maak's works significantly contributed in the research of the flora of the Eastern Siberia, Amur and Ussuri regions.

Russian Brokhaus Encyclopaedia online; Polovtsev's Russian Biographical Dictionary online.

Presentation Copy Signed by the Author with Interesting Letters of Contemporary Sinologists

44. Obruchev , Vladimir Afanasievich (1863-1954)

Tsentralnaia Asia, Severnii Kitai i Nan-Shan. Otchet o Puteshestvii, Sovershennom po Porucheniiu Imperatorskogo Russkogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva v 1892-94 [Central Asia, Northern China and Nan Shan. Account of the Travel, Completed on Assignment of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in 1892-94]: in 2 vols. / Ed. V. Mushketov.

Saint Petersburg: M.M. Stasiulevich, 1900-1901. First Edition, Presentation Copy Signed by the Author. Quarto, 2 vols. Period brown treed half sheep with treed papered boards, spine with gilt ornament and gilt lettered red and green morocco labels. A very good set.

Signed presentation inscription from the author on the half title of vol. 1: "Pour les bibliothèque de les missions belges du pays Ortous souvenir de l'auteur. V. Obroutcheff. S. Petersbourg, Russie, Mars 1900" (first line is almost cut off by the binder). There's also inscription by the owner R. Verbrugge with green ink underneath: "Souvenir [?] 1906"(latter's initials "R. Verbrugge" also lettered on the feet of the spines of both volumes). Numerous contemporary manuscript notes in French and Russian, plans and drawings on separate leaves, put in between the pages.

Vol. 1. Travel Diaries Concerning Eastern Mongolia, Zhili, Shanxi, Shaanxi and Gansu Provinces, Ordos and Alashan Deserts, and Eastern Nan Shan . xxxviii, 631 pp. 8 chromolithographed folded maps, 39 phototypic views on 22 plates.

Vol. 2. Travel Diaries Concerning Central Mongolia, Dzhungaria and Bei Shan, Nan Shan, Eastern Han Shan and Qinling Mountains . xxvi, [2], 686, [1] pp. 6 chromolithographed folded maps, 2 folded tables, 40 phototypic views and geliogravures on 20 plates.

Very rare as only eight copies found in Wordcat.

Interesting travel account covering some blanks on the map of Central Asia, and thus completing the work of creating a detailed map of the region started by N. Przhevalski, G. Potanin, F. Von Richthofen, W. Rockhill and others. Obruchev's work is most significant for being the first (and very high quality) geological survey of the noted areas of Central Asia which gave the correct picture of its geological structure and history, disproving previous theories.

Obruchev explored Eastern Mongolia between Kyakhta and Kalgan (Zhangjiakou), North-Western China including Ordos Desert, Kunlun mountain range with Nan Shan (Qilian Mountains) and Qinling Mountains, Kukunor lake, Eastern Tian Shan, Sichuan province of Inner China; went through the Gobi desert and Dzhungaria and finished the expedition in Kuldja (Ghulja). Formally he was a part of Grigori Potanin's Sichuan expedition 1892-94, as a geologist, but in fact the explorers worked separately and didn't meet during the expedition.

Obruchev's travel account was published on assignment of Russian Geographical Society, with numerous illustrations, maps, indexes and supplements. It gave Obruchev wide popularity in the scientific world; the Russian Geographical Society awarded him with its Grand golden medal, and the Paris Academy of Sciences awarded him with its Pyotr Chikhachev Prize.

Our copy was presented by the author to the Belgium embassy in Saint Petersburg; apart from the presentation inscription it contains numerous interesting manuscripts and maps concerning Northern China and Mongolia, presumably belonging to several Sinologists. Among them is letter by Russian botanist Ivan Palibin (1872-1949) who is mostly known to the West geographers for his participation in the first Arctic voyage of the ice-breaker "Ermak" in 1901. On assignment of Russian Geographical Society Palibin also travelled across Mongolia and Northern China in 1899, carried out extensive botanical research and was awarded with the Society's silver medal for it (1902). In the letter written in French to an unidentified correspondent Palibin is complaining that his account on the Mongolian trip still hasn't been published because of his collaborator Rudnev who is delaying the process (Andrey Rudnev (1878-1958) was a noted Russian Orientalist, docent of the Saint Petersburg University, one of the best specialists on Mongolia in the beginning of the 20th century).

Other manuscripts include a fragment of a letter of T. Diedrichmann (?) written in German, where he talks about his intention to travel to Mongolia, Kalgan Mountains and other regions of Central Asia; the return address is given as "Peking, Russian Post office." There are also several maps, sketches and notes in Russian and French. Overall a very interesting copy with a very exciting provenance. Cordier Sinica 2153-4; Howgego, Continental Exploration 1850-1940, O4.

45. Pallas , Peter Simon (1741-1811)

Merkwu¨rdigkeiten der Morduanen, Kasaken, Kalmu¨cken, Kirgisen, Baschkiren &c. Nebst Andern Dahin Geho¨rigen Nachrichten, und Kupfern. Ein Auszug aus Pallas Reisen. [Ethnographic Commentaries on Mordvinians, Chuvashs, Kalmyks, Kirghises, Bashkirs and Ural Cossaks].

Frankfurt & Leipzig: [J. F. Hartknoch], 1773. First Edition. Octavo. v , 300 pp. With ten folding copper engravings on plates. Period style brown gilt tooled half sheep with marbled boards. A near fine copy.

Ethnographic commentaries on Mordvinians, Chuvashs, Kalmyks, Kirghises, Bashkirs and Ural Cossaks made during the first part of Pallas's famous travel to Asiatic Russia in 1768-1774. Although the main account on the travel was published in Saint Petersburg in 1771-1776, Pallas periodically prepared reports on concrete subjects, which were quickly published in Europe. This book is dedicated to his visits to Simbirsk, Samara, Orenburg, river Ural, Guriev city on the Caspian Sea and Ufa. Apart from notes on the economy, manners and customs of the local people, he describes Ural rock salt deposits, the fisheries of the Volga River and the Caspian Sea, market of Orenburg, ancient Tatar city Bulgar, small Russian colony of Cherkask and others. The plates depict costumes, warriors, buildings, interiors of Urtas, statues of Gods etc. Pallas's ethnographical studies later became the basis of his, compiled on commission of Catherine the Great, Comparative Dictionary of all Languages and Dialects (2 vols., SPb., 1787-1789).

" Peter Simon Pallas was an outstanding zoologist and botanist. Prussian by birth, he spent 43 years on Russian service. Studied in the University of Halle and the University of Gottingen; graduated from the University of Leiden with doctor's degree at the age of nineteen. In the beginning of his scientific career created a new system of animal classification. His work Miscellanea Zoologica (1766) included the descriptions of several vertebrates new to science which he had discovered in the Dutch museum collections. In Berlin he began to work on his Spicilegia Zoologica (1767-80).

In 1767, Pallas was invited by Catherine II of Russia to become a professor at the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. In 1768-1774, he led the famous expedition to central Russian provinces, Povolzhye, Urals, West Siberia, Altay and Transbaikal, collecting natural history specimens. He explored the Caspian Sea, the Ural, Altai mountains and the upper Amur, reaching as far eastward as Lake Baikal. The regular reports which Pallas sent to St Petersburg were collected together and published as 'Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs' [Journey through various provinces of the Russian Empire] (3 vols., 1771-1776). It covered a wide range of topics, including geology and mineralogy, reports on the native peoples, their economy, manners and customs, religions, and descriptions of new plants and animals. It is especially significant because Pallas accurately described the state of forests and steppes of Western Russia, Urals and Siberia, still un touched by human activities.

Pallas settled in St Petersburg, becoming a favourite of Catherine II and teaching natural history to the Grand Dukes Alexander and Constantine. He was provided with the plants collected by other naturalists to compile the Flora Rossica (1784-1815), and started work on his Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica (1811-31). The Empress bought Pallas's large natural history collection for 2,000 roubles, 500 more than his asking price, and allowed him to keep them for life.

Between 1793 and 1794, Pallas led a second expedition to southern Russia, visiting the Crimea and the Black Sea. The account of the expedition was published as Bemerkungen auf einer Reise in die Südlichen Statthalterschaften des Russischen Reichs (1799-1801).

Howgego P10; Russian Brokhaus Encyclopaedia online; Polovtsev's Russian Biographical Dictionary online; Catalogue of Russian National library on-line; Wikipedia.

46. Panov , Viktor Ananievich (1854-1922)

Dalnevostochnoe Polozhenie (Ocherk Priamuria) [Current State of the Far East: The Essay on the Amur Region].

Vladivostok: Dalnii Vostok” newspaper, 1912. First Edition. Large Octavo. [4], 119 pp. Later Soviet green silver gilt titled quarter cloth with beige papered boards. A very good copy.

Rare offprint as only seven copies found in Worldcat. Separate issue of an article in "Dalnii Vostok" (The Far East) newspaper (1912, # 179-205).

This rare short run imprint contains a full collection of essays by Viktor Panov consisting of a comprehensive analysis of the situation in the Russian Far East after the Russian-Japanese war 1904-1905. Panov lived and worked in the Far East for most of his life and was an outstanding expert of the affairs of the region. He started as a navigator in the Pacific, then worked as a map maker; in 1890 he founded the first maritime school in the Russian Far East (now Maritime State University in Vladivostok); also, he worked as a deputy in the Vladivostok Duma and for two years was a Major (Golova) of Vladivostok. In 1892 Panov founded the first Russian Far East private newspaper "Dalnii Vostok" and was its permanent chief editor until 1921, almost until his death. Panov was also noted for his Oriental studies and interest to the Far East history and ethnography. Autodidact, he studied Chinese, Japanese, Mongolian and Manchurian languages and published several historical articles and books basing on the originals sources in these languages. In 1884 he became one of the founding members of the Amur Region Research Society.

This book analyses the colonisation of the Amur Region, the base of Russians on the Pacific and describes the government, military forces, agriculture, tax system etc of the region. He also gives an interesting outline of the history of the region before annexation by Russia in the middle of the 17th century.

47. Parrot , Friedrich (1791-1841)

Journey to Ararat

London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1845. First English Edition. Octavo. xii, 375 pp. With a folding engraved map and numerous wood engravings in text. Early 20th century brown gilt tooled half calf with cloth boards. Owner's inscription on the title “George Fleming, Royal Engineers”. Paper slightly browned, minor tear on fold of the map, occasional foxing throughout the text, otherwise a very good copy.

Captivating description of the first ascent of Ararat executed in 1829 by Baltic German naturalist and traveler Dr. Friedrich Parrot. The English edition was published as first volume of the series The World Surveyed in the XIXth Century, or Recent Narratives of Scientific and Exploratory Expeditions, undertaken chiefly by command of Foreign Governments (ed. W.D. Cooley). Very rare first German edition was published in 1834 (Berlin, 2 Th.). Parrot was one of the last travelers to visit Agori village and the monastery of Saint Jacob located on Ararat's slopes, before a disastrous earthquake completely buried both in May 1840. The English edition of his account is supplemented with interesting description of the earthquake which supposedly was accompanied by Ararat's eruption.

Johann Jacob Friedrich Wilhelm Parrot was a Baltic German naturalist and traveller, professor of the University of Dorpat, Russian Imperial Councillor of state. Together with Khachatur Abovian (Armenian writer and national public figure), Parrot became the first modern explorer to reach the summit of Mount Ararat, subsequent to the onset of Russian rule in 1829. Abovian and Parrot crossed the Aras River and headed to the Armenian village of Agori situated on the northern slope of Ararat 4,000 feet above sea level. They set up a base camp at the Monastery of Saint Jacob some 2,400 feet higher, at an elevation of 6,375 feet. They reached the summit on the third attempt, eventually using the north-western slope.

“We passed without stopping over a couple of hills; there we felt the mountain wind; I pressed forward round a projecting mound of snow, and behold! Before my eyes, now intoxicated with joy, lay the extreme cone, the highest pinnacle of Ararat. Still, a last effort was required of us to ascend a tract of ice by means of steps, and that accomplished, about a quarter past three on the 27 th September, 1829, WE STOOD ON THE TOP OF ARARAT” ( from the account ) . Abovian dug a hole in the ice and erected a wooden cross facing north. He also picked up a chunk of ice from the summit and carried it down with him in a bottle, considering it water holy. In a couple of weeks Parrot and Abovian climbed up the second peak of the mountain, or the Lesser Ararat (Wikipedia).

The book also contains numerous scientific observations (barometrical, temperature, magnetic, astronomical, geological etc); appendix includes the analysis of the relative level of the Caspian Sea.

Atabey 925; Blackmer 1257; Neate P13.

48. Peshchurov , Dmitrii Alexeevich (1833-1913)

Kitaisko-Russkii Slovar' po Graficheskoi Sisteme [Chinese-Russian Dictionary According to the Graphic System].

Saint Petersburg: Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1891. First and Only Edition. Large Octavo. x, 266, [i] pp.Period style dark brown gilt tooled half calf with brown cloth boards and red gilt label. Chinese hieroglyphs and stamp on the title. Some leaves with water stains; tears in a few leaves neatly repaired, leaves between pp.138 and 153 misbound. Overall a good copy.

Early interesting Chinese-Russian dictionary based on the "graphic" system invented by noted Russian sinologist V.P. Vasiliev (1818-1900). It consists of 19 parts accordingly to the main inscription elements of Chinese hieroglyphs. The Preface gives a brief overview of the main types of Chinese dictionaries and lists their main Chinese, European and Russian editions. This dictionary was published as a tutorial for the students of the Faculty of Oriental Studies in Saint Petersburg University.

Dmitri Peshchurov was a Russian sinologist, professor of the Faculty of Oriental Studies at Saint Petersburg University. In 1857 he was sent to the Russian mission in Peking to carry out astronomical observations, in 1861 he was appointed a consulate agent in Tianjin. Upon returning to Russia he devoted himself to teaching in the university, and working part time as a translator in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

49. Pozdneev , Dimitri (Editor) (1865-1942)

Opisanie Man'chzhurii [Description of Manchuria (with a map), compiled by the Chancery of the Ministry of Finance].

Saint Petersburg: J.H. Erlich, 1897. First Edition. Quarto, 2 vols. in one. [2], v, 620, vi + v, [6], 8, 19, 3, 33, 4, 13, 13, 4, 12, [1], 64, [3], 10, 48, 2, 9, 26, 2, 16 pp. With four charts on two leaves and a large folding chromolithographed map. Period style brown gilt tooled half calf with marbled boards and black gilt label. A couple of small library markings, otherwise a very good copy.

Best period comprehensive description of Manchuria (or the three eastern provinces of the Chinese Empire) conducted as a result of the rising influence of the Russian Empire in the Far East. It was the time when Russians started the construction of the Chinese Eastern railway to Vladivostok through Manchuria (it was built in 1897-1903), in 1898 the Russian Empire leased the Lyaodung Peninsula from China, strengthened Port Arthur and connected it with Vladivostok through Manchuria. Later Russian influence in Manchuria was significantly weakened after Russia's loss in Russian-Japanese war 1904-1905.

The editor accentuates that the present work is the first full, comprehensive and independent (i.e. Published separately, not as a part of a bigger research) description of Manchuria. He attempts to analyse all known sources on Manchuria, both Russian and foreign. The book includes articles on Manchurian history, geography, geology, climate, flora and fauna, population, state and administration, main cities, roads, industry and agriculture, trade. The second volume has ten supplements, representing numerous climatological, biological, astronomical, and statistical data. It also includes the Chinese names of the road stations (hieroglyphs), Chinese measures and calendar and a vast Bibliography of Manchuria (several hundred titles of books, articles and maps). The book is supplemented with an index of personal names.

The detailed map of Manchuria is based on the best Russian map of the General Staff, supplemented with known foreign maps, English, German, Chinese and others. The map is very accurate and outlines the borders, cities, towns and villages; roads and railways, telegraph cables under water; mountain passes with heights, gold fields, deposits of silver, iron and coal; Great Wall of China etc. the future Chinese Eastern railway is already outlined as a proposed construction.

Dmitrii Matveevich Pozdneev was a noted Russian orientalist and sinologist, professor of Saint Petersburg University. He worked in Vladivostok, China and Japan; gave lectures on the history and economy of China and Japan and created the first Japanese-Russian hieroglyphic dictionary. In 1937 he was arrested during Stalin political repressions, consequently died in prison camp and was rehabilitated posthumously.


50. Podshivalov , Vasily Sergeevich (1765-1813) [Translator]

[Description of Tibet, Dalai-Lama and Lhasa] Kniga Premudrosti i Dobrodeteli, Ili Sostojanie Chelovecheskoi Zhizni: Indeiskoe Nravouchenie. S Aglinskogo na Nemetskoi, a s Nemetskogo na Russkii jazik perevedennoe B... P... [A Book of Wisdom and Virtue, Or the State of a Human Life: An Indian Moral. Translated from English into German and From German into Russian by V... P...].

Moscow: University Typography, by N. Novikov, 1786. First Edition. Small Octavo, 3 parts in one. 80, iv; 90; 32 pp. Period Russian full calf, spine with raised bands, blind stamps and morocco labels in compartments. Chinese stamp on half title. The binding is worn at extremities, labels chipped, and with a very mild water stain of upper right corner of text. Owner's inscription on verso of the half title "From books of Praskovia Kologrivova". A good copy of this rare Russian Masonic edition.

Very Rare as all Russian Masonic books of the 18th century; no copy of this edition found in Worldcat. The Preface contains one of the first printed Russian accounts of Tibet.

First Russian edition of an English anonymous collection of moral rules and directions, entitled "The Oeconomy of Human Life, translated from an Indian Manuscript, written by an ancient Brahmin. To which is prefixed an account of the manner in which the said manuscript was discovered. In a letter from the English gentleman now residing in China to the Earl of ***(First ed. London, 1750; on the title 1751). The authorship of the book is attributed either to Robert Dodsley (1704-1764) or to Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield (1694-1773). The book became widely popular in the 18th century Europe and was published numerous times in several languages (more than 10 editions alone in Germany!).

Although attributed to a European writer and thus having little to do with an "Indian Manuscript", the book, in the preface, gives an interesting description of Tibet, Dalai-Lama and Lhasa, and explains the history of "acquiring" the manuscript from Tibet.

In Russia "Kniga" became very popular within high, educated society and was even included in the reading program of the Noble Boarding School at the Moscow University where children of the best noble families studied (including V. Zhukovsky, A. Griboedov and M. Lermontov). The Russian translation was made by one of the teachers of the Noble Boarding School, who was noted as a journalist and translator. The moralistic content of the book attracted attention of the Russian Masons who highly appreciated it as well. "Kniga" was published by a famous Russian publisher, bookseller, enlightener, and Mason Nikolai Ivanovich Novikov (1744-1818). It's worth mentioning that Novikov's editions are all highly collectable.

Even more interesting though is the provenance of this copy, as it comes from the library of Praskovia Kologrivova, born Trubetskaya (1762-1868), a famous Russian beauty and society figure of the time and the first Russian woman-aeronaut. In 1803 he flew across Moscow in the balloon built by Andre-Jacques Garnerin. Nikolai Karamzin was an admirer of her and dedicated poems to her, she was also immortalised in Alexander Griboedov's comedy "Gore ot Uma" (Woe from Wit).

Svodny Katalog XVIII 2959; Chesterfield. Letters to his Son (Leningrad, 1971).

51. Poljakov , Ivan Semenovich (1847-1887)

Loshad' Przhevalskogo, zoologichesky ocherk [Przhevalsky's Horse, the Zoological Outline]. In: Izvestija Imperatorskogo Russkogo Geograficheskogo Obschesctva [Bulletins of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society / Chief editor, secretary of the Society V.I. Sreznevsky. 1881. Vol. 17. Issue 1. pp. 1-20].

Saint Petersburg: V. Bezobrazov and Co., 1880. First Edition. Large Octavo. 77, 18, x pp. With two chromolithographed plates. Original light blue printed wrappers. A very good copy.

One of the first detailed descriptions of a new species of horse, discovered in 1879 by distinguished Russian traveler N.M. Przheval'skiy (1839-1888) in the vicinity of Lake Lob Nur (modern China). This article is published in "Bulletins of the Russian Geographical Society," a scientific magazine, published since 1865.

Ivan Semenovich Polyakov was a Russian zoologist, anthropologist and ethnographer and curator of the Zoological Museum at the Russian Academy of Sciences. He made several scientific trips to the north of Russia, Siberia, Central Asia and Sakhalin, resulting in his numerous articles and reports. He described the skin and skeleton of a previously unknown horse and proved that it is a new species. In honor of his friend, "the indefatigable explorer of Central Asia" Polyakov named the horse "Equus Przewalskii". In 1881 it was recognized as a new wild species.

The Przewalski's Horse is considered the only remaining truly wild "horse" in the world and may be the closest living wild relative of the domesticated horse, Equus caballus. The world population of these horses are all descended from 9 of the 31 horses held in captivity in 1945. These nine horses were mostly descended from approximately 15 captured around 1900. A cooperative venture between the Zoological Society of London and Mongolian scientists has resulted in successful reintroduction of these horses from zoos into their natural habitat in Mongolia; and as of 2005 there is a free-ranging population of 248 animals in the wild. The total number of these horses according to a 2005 census was about 1,500. The reintroduced horses successfully reproduced, and the status of the animal was changed from "extinct in the wild" to "endangered" in 2005 (Wikipedia).The article describes in detail the structure of Przewalski's horses, distinguishing them from the closest relatives - domestic horse, Asiatic wild ass, tarpans, donkeys.

Russian Brokhaus Encyclopaedia online; Polovtsev's Russian Biographical Dictionary online.

52. Potanin , Grigorii Nikolaevich (1835-1920)

Puteshestviia G.N. Potanina po Kitaiu, Tibetu i Mongolii [G.N. Potanin's Travels across China, Tibet and Mongolia] / Compiled by M.A. Lialina.

Saint Petersburg: A.F. Devrien, 1898. First Edition. Octavo. xii, 224 pp. With a portrait frontispiece and illustrations in text. Bound without the folding map which is often the case in this work. Later Soviet style black quarter cloth with marbled boards, original publisher's chromolithographed front wrapper bound in. With a couple of library markings on the wrapper, title and in the text, otherwise a very good copy.

Popular edition containing accounts of Potanin's three major travels to North-Western Mongolia (1876-77 and 1879-80), Northern China and Eastern Tibet (1884-86). Grigorii Potanin was a Russian geographer, ethnographer and writer. He explored vast hitherto unknown or little known regions of Central Asia and collected precious information about life and culture of local Turkic tribes, as well as Chinese, Dungan, Tangut people; compiled large herbariums and zoological collections. Potanin's wife who accompanied him during all his expeditions died on the way to Tibet during their later travels in 1892. Potanin stopped travelling after 1899, but initiated several expeditions across Siberia. A range in the Nanshan mountains and a glacier in the Altai Mountains were named after him.

The book is richly illustrated and written in a very captivating manner. "Potanin was widely honoured for his work and in 1899 he published a monumental study of the peoples of Central Asia. In 1902 he [moved] to Tomsk, where together with his longstanding companion Iadrintsev, he founded the university, established the society for the study of Siberia, promoted a free Siberian press and inspired a generation of young explorers" (Howgego, Continental Exploration 1850-1940, P51).

53. Rosenberg , Emil

Festrede am Tage der Enthu¨llung des in Dorpat errichteten Denkmals fu¨r Karl Ernst von Baer in der Aula der Universita¨t am 16. (28) November 1886 gehalten. [Speech on the day of the Inauguration in Dorpat, of the Karl Ernst von Baer Monument].

Dorpat: C. Mattiesen, 1886. First Edition. Quarto. 33 pp. Original publisher's printed light green wrappers. A very good copy.

Baer authored about 300 publications. Starting in 1839, together with another member of Russian Science Academy, Gelmersen he edited and published the Academy's journal "Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Russischen Reiches" ("Materials to the knowledge of Russian Empire and neighboring countries of Asia", St. Petersburg, 1839-68, 26 vol.). The contents of the first volume was a famous description of the travel of Russian Arctic explorer F.P. Wrangell to Alaska "Statistische und ethnographische Nachrichten uber die russichen Besitzungen an der Nordwestkuste von Amerika". This is one of the fundamental works on Alaska (Lada-Mokarski). Subsequently, Baer wrote a series of articles on Russia's Arctic.

Baer graduated from the University of Dorpat. Professor of Königsberg University, an honorary member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, one of the founders and first president of the Russian Geographical Society. Member of scientific expeditions to the north of the Kola Peninsula and Novaya Zemlya (1837), the islands of the Gulf of Finland (1839), to Lapland (1840), the Mediterranean Sea (1845-46), the Caspian Sea (1853-56). Before Baer Novaya Zemlya hasn't been visited by a naturalist. Especially important are Baer's travels to the Caspian Sea. Baer also investigated the mouths of Volga and Ural rivers, the islands in the Caspian sea, salt lakes along the west side of the Volga delta, visited Derbent and Baku, Lake Sevan in Armenia, and he made a circular cruise on the Caspian Sea, examining all its shores. For his Caspian studies Baer was awarded by the Konstantinovskaya medal of the Russian Geographical Society in 1861. In 1864 to commemorate the 50 anniversary of his scientific activity St. Petersburg's Academy of Sciences established an award in his name and issued a special medal. Baer's name was given to a cape of Novaya Zemlya and the island at Taimyr Bay.

Russian Brockhaus Encyclopaedia on-line.

54. Semedo , Alvaro (1586-1658)

Imperio de la China y cultura evangelica en e´l, por los Religiosos de la Compan~ia de Jesus, sacado de las noticias del P. Alva ro Semmedo,...Empire of China and the Christian culture of the Society of Jesus, taken from the accounts of P. Alvaro Semmedo].

Lisbon: Officina Herreriana, 1731. Second Spanish Edition. Small Folio. [xix], 252 pp. Period style dark brown gilt tooled full calf with a red gilt morocco label. A few leaves with minor repair to blank margins, otherwise a very good copy.

Rare work. Semedo was the Portuguese Procurado General for China. This is a general description of Chinese society which describes the foreign missions and the Manchu campaigns. The manuscript was written by Semedo in Goa in 1638 and contains the first description of tea in a European work on China. "Semedo first arrived in China in 1613, and worked there for the next twenty-four years. During this time he was associated with Johann Adam Schall von Bell, whom he joined at Xian in 1628, and was responsible for the first European translation of the engraved pillar commemorating the arrival of the Nestorian Alopen. Sent back to Europe as procurator in Rome for the China mission, he called at Goa, where in 1638 he completed his Relacao da propagacao de fe no regno da China e outras adjacentes, a valuable account of the conditions in China at the end of the Ming dynasty. The Portuguese original of the work eventually reached the hands of the Portuguese historian, Manuel Faria y Sousa, who edited it into an historical form and had it translated into Spanish"(Howgego S81). "This work gives a long account of China, its various provinces, inhabitants and their manners and customs, Government and Military Art, propagation of the Gospel, and more particularly an account of the labours of the Jesuits there"(Cox. I, p. 323); Cordier Sinica 23-24; "On 29 March 1608, [Semedo] left for Goa and the Far East aboard Na. Sra. Do Vencimento. He arrived to Macau in 1610, and to Nanjing in 1613. Along with another Jesuit, Alfonso Vagnoni, he was imprisoned during an anti-Christian campaign in Nanjing in 1616, and then sent back to Macau, where he stayed till 1621.

As the persecution campaign in the mainland China abated, Fr. Semedo changed his Chinese name from Xie Wulu to Zeng Dezhao and re-entered China, now working in Jiangsu and Jiangnan provinces. He spent most of his term in China in the central and southern provinces; perhaps his only trip north was the one he made to Xi'an in 1625, during which he was the first European to see the recently unearthed Nestorian Stele" (Wikipedia).

55. Spalding , Captain H.

Khiva and Turkestan. Translated from Russian.

London: Chapman and Hall, 1874. First Edition. Octavo. xiv, [i], 248 pp. With a large folding map. Handsome period style red gilt tooled half morocco with raised bands and marbled boards. A near fine copy.

An anonymous Russian work describing the Khiva Khanate and military operations in the region, providing a background to the opportunities and reasons for Tsarist expansion in Central Asia (Yakushi S666).

Interesting work from the time of the increasing tension in the Great Game. "In 1860-early 1870s Russians conquered and annexed khanates of Bukhara, Kokand and Khiva. Russian control now extended as far as the northern bank of the Amu Darya river. It caused hostile reaction of English Government. In a letter to Queen Victoria, Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli proposed "to clear Central Asia of Muscovites and drive them into the Caspian". He introduced the Royal Titles Act, which added to Victoria's titles that of Empress of India, putting her at the same level as the Russian Emperor"(Wikipedia). Spalding translated into English the original Russian work "Out neighbours in the Central Asia: Khiva and Turcomania" which had been published anonymously in 1873 in Saint Petersburg.

The present work is divided into two parts: 1) Turkestan and 2) The Khanate of Khiva; and describes their geography, climate, population social organisation and economy, trade and commerce, religion, manners and customs, as well as history and modern situation of Russian expansion in the region. It is supplemented with a detailed map of the Russian Possessions in Central Asia. Catalogue of Russian National library online.

Russian Far East and a Settlement of Former Russian-American Company

56. Stephanovich , Yacov (1853-1916)

Ot Yakutska do Ayana. Putevie Nabludeniia. Ayanskaia Ekspeditsiia 1894 g. [From Yakutsk to Ayan: the Travel Observations. The Ayan Expedition in 1894] / Ed. J.P. Prein. Issued as a part of the Proceedings of the Eastern-Siberian Division of Russian Geographical Society (vol. II, issue 3).

Irkutsk: P.I. Makushin, 1896. First Edition. Large Octavo. [4], 184, [2] pp. With one lithographed folding map and two lithographed folding plates. Title in Russian and German. Period style brown quarter sheep with gilt and blind tooled spine, and black morocco gilt lettered label on the spine. A near fine copy.

Account of the travels of a Russian road engineer P.A. Sikorskii from Yakutsk to Ayan, a Russian port at the Sea of Okhotsk. In 1894 Sikorskii travelled on assignment of the Siberian General Governor in order to examine the neglected Ayan post road, to figure out the possibilities of re-establishing Ayan as a port and trade center and to find the most convenient way there through the coastal Dzhugdzhur Mountains. The expedition went along Maya river, a tributary of Aldan to Nelkan settlement, and further through the Dzhugdzhur Mountains to Ayan.

The book gives a detailed account of Amga, Ust-Mai and Nelkan settlements, rivers Lena, Maya, Yudoma, Moimakan and others, mountain passes and ranges, flora and fauna. It describes manners and customs of the local people, Yakuts and Evenks, and also of the Russian settlers, and presents the recommendation for a new road from Nelkan to Ayan. The book is supplemented with a map which gives a detailed route from Nelkan to Ayan through the mountains, showing altitudes, lakes, passes etc. The plates show the plan of the cave "The Devil's dwelling" as well as native drawings founded on its walls. The account was published by the first scientific institution in the Eastern Siberia, the Siberian division of Russian Geographical Society (since 1851). The text is written by Yakov Stephanovich, a Russian journalist, naturalist and revolutionary, who was exiled to Yakutia in 1890-1905 for his anti-government activity.

The Ayan settlement (now in Khabarovsk Krai) was founded in 1843 as a new, more convenient and better protected port on the Sea of Okhotsk. The work started by the initiative of the Russian-American Company which needed a base on the Okhotsk Sea to transport its' goods to Yakutsk and further to Western Siberia. In 1845 an overland route was established to Yakutsk. Although in 1849 the naval center was again shifted to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Ayan was still an important harbour. During the Crimean War it was taken by the English fleet (July 9, 1855) with the intention to destroy all Russian ships they could find.

With the Amur Annexation in 1860, Russian naval forces were shifted south to Nikolayevsk-on-Amur and Vladivostok. The purchase of Alaska in 1867 and closure of the Russian-American company further reduced Ayan's importance. In the last decades of the 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, assistance amounted to a few steamships a year dispatched from Vladivostok that brought flour, sugar, and household supplies. Nowadays Ayan is still a small village with population of 1700 people. It is connected through river and sea transport, and a small airport. New projects of reconstructing the road to Yakutsk are being discussed (Russian Brokhaus Encyclopaedia on-line, Polovtsev's Russian Biographic Dictionary on-line, Catalogue of Russian National library on-line, The Far East Encyclopaedia on-line).

Luxury Binding from the Library of Georgian Prince and Helena Rubinstein's Husband

57. Tsagareli , Alexander Antonovich, Prof. (1844-1928)

Snosheniia Rossii s Kavkazom v XVI-XVIII Stoletiiakh [Russian Relations with the Caucasus in the 16-18th Centuries].

Saint Petersburg: V. Kirshbaum, 1891. First Edition. Large Octavo. [2], 51 pp. Period luxury black full sheep, with gilt stamped decorative border on the front cover (blind stamped on the rear board) and gilt lettered title on the front cover. Moiré endpapers, marbled edges. A work of "A. Ek" bindery (blind stamp on the bottom of the rear cover). Extremities very mildly rubbed, otherwise a near fine copy.

Very Rare short run imprint as only one copy found in Worldcat. From the library of Prince Artchil Gourielli-Tchkonia (coat of arms bookplate on the front pastedown).

A grand speech written for the Yearly Congress in Saint Petersburg University held on the 8th of February, 1891. The author, Alexander Tsagareli was a professional Georgian linguist, professor of Georgian and Armenian linguistics, literature and history in Saint Petersburg University (since 1886), author of numerous articles on the topic, including those in the Russian Brockhaus Encyclopaedic Dictionary. The speech is dedicated to the history of Russian-Georgian relations in 16-18th centuries and ends with the annexation of Georgia to Russia in the beginning of the 19th century. It also outlines the main Russian travels to Georgia and is supplemented with the main bibliography of the topic.

Prince Artchil Gourielli-Tchkonia (1895-1955) was the Georgian born husband of Cosmetician Helena Rubinstein, head of the House of Gourielli, manufacturers of cosmetics for men. Some have claimed that Artchil's nobility was doubtful and that his marriage with Rubinstein was not more than a marketing ploy.

58. Vambery , Armin (1832-1913)

Puteshestvie po Srednei Azii [Travels through Central Asia. A Description of a Journey from Teheran across the Turkmen Steppe along the Eastern Shore of the Caspian Sea to Khiva, Bukhara and Samarkand / With a map of Central Asia. Translated from English].

St. Petersburg: J.A. Bokram, 1865. First Edition in Russian. Large Octavo. [1], ii, ii, ii, 3-221 pp. With a large folding outline hand-colored lithographed map . Recent period style half calf with marbled boards, red gilt lettered label on spine. A few leaves with very mild foxing, a Chinese stamp on the title, otherwise a very good copy.

Very Rare as only three copies found in Worldcat. First Russian edition of Vambery's account printed just a year after its' first appearance in print (London, 1864). The book met high demand in Russia and was reissued in 1867 and 1870. This was a time of active Russian advance in Central Asia. In the end of the book Vambery says: "At the same time when I'm writing these lines, a correspondent of Daily Telegraph in Saint Petersburg (10th of October, 1864) is reporting that Russians have seized Tashkent" (actually that attempt was unsuccessful, and Tashkent was seized by the troops of general Cherniaev only in May 1865).

The first part of the book is a travel account proper; the second part is integral and connected narrative on the Central Asian countries, their territories, politics, authorities, history, manners and customs etc.

Armin Vambery was a Hungarian Orientalist and traveller of Jewish origin. He had a remarkable aptitude for learning languages and spoke Turkish and twenty other Ottoman languages and dialects, as well as Latin, French, English, German, several Slavic and Scandinavian languages. At the age of 20, inspired with the idea of discovering a Hungarian ancestral land in Asia, he went to Istanbul, where being noted for his linguistic skills served as a secretary to Fuat Pasha, Ottoman minister of foreign affairs. About this time he was elected a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in recognition of his translations of the works of Ottoman historians.

Returning to Budapest in 1861, he received a stipend of a thousand florins from the Academy, and in the autumn of the same year, disguised as a Sunnite dervish, and under the name of Reshit Efendi, he set out from Constantinople. His route lay from Trebizond on the Black Sea to Tehran in Persia, where he joined a band of pilgrims returning from Mecca, spending several months with them traveling across Central Iran (Tabriz, Zanjan, and Kazvin). He then went to Shiraz, through Ispahan, and in June, 1863, he reached Khiva. Throughout this time, he succeeded in maintaining his disguise as "Reshit Efendi," so that upon his arrival at Khiva he managed to keep up appearances during interviews with the local khan. Together with his band of travelers, he then travelled via Bokhara and arrived at Samarkand. Initially, he aroused the suspicions of the local ruler, who kept him in an audience for a full half-hour. Vámbéry managed to maintain his pretences, and left the audience laden with gifts. Upon leaving Samarkand, Vámbéry began making his way back to Constantinople, traveling by way of Herat. There he took leave of the band of dervishes and joined a caravan to Tehran, and from there, via Trebizond and Erzerum, to Constantinople, arriving there in March 1864.

This was the first journey of its kind undertaken by a Western European; and since it was necessary to avoid suspicion, Vámbéry could not take even fragmentary notes, except by stealth. He returned to Europe in 1864. That following June, he paid a visit to London, where he was treated as a celebrity because of his daring adventures and knowledge of languages. That same year, he published his Travels in Central Asia, based on the few, furtive notes he was able to make while traveling with the dervishes. Returning to Hungary, Vámbéry was appointed professor of Oriental languages at the University of Budapest in 1865, retiring in 1905.

Vámbéry became known also as a publicist, zealously defending English policy in the East against the Russians. In 2005 the National Archives at Kew, Surrey, made files accessible to the public, and it was revealed that Vámbéry had been employed by the British Foreign Office as an agent and spy whose task it was to combat Russian attempts at gaining ground in Central Asia and threatening the British position on the Indian sub-continent.

Russian Brokhaus Encyclopaedia on-line; Encyclopaedia Britannica; Jewish Encyclopaedia on-line; Howgego Continental Exploration 1850-1940, V1; Wikipedia.

59. Vambery , Armin (1832-1913)

Autograph Letter Signed [With] Autograph Note Signed "A. Vambéry" to Martin Wood, sometime Editor of "The Times of India". With one original envelope addressed by Vambéry. [Embossed heading] Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall, [London], 10 and 11 July 1892 respectively.

London, 1892. Octavo. Total four pages with one envelope with stamp. The letter, note and envelope are all in near fine condition.

[10 July, 3 pp.]: Vambery reacts to a letter sent by Wood, saying "In political questions of high importance, as the Central Asiatic is, diversity of opinions is very natural, and I am not the least astonished of [sic] the quite opposite view you exhibit in your letters." He would like to show his respect for his views with a personal meeting, and asks him to suggest a time and place.

[11 July, one page] : he confirms their appointment to meet the following day at the Athenaeum.

See short biographical note about Armin Vambery in the previous description.

60. Wyld , J[ames] (1790-1836)

European Dominions of the Ottomans or Turkey in Europe [Folding Map].

London: J. Wyld, 1824. First Edition. Engraved folding map, outline hand colored, with an elaborate cartouche, mounted in segments on cloth 78x57,5 cm (23x30 inches) The map is housed in a period maroon gilt titled quarter straight grained morocco slip case with marbled boards. Map in very good condition, slip case with mild wear of extremities.

James Wyld Senior was a noted map publisher, geographer and engraver, and the Royal Geographer, based at the Charing Cross. He succeeded mapmaker William Faden and reissued many of his maps. Wyld maintained the high standard of graphic and factual excellence that had been established by his predecessor and his maps are among the finest published in the early nineteenth century (Tooley, vol. Q-Z, 415-416). This map of the Ottoman Empire's possessions in Europe includes the Balkans and Anatolia.




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