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The Michael F. Layland Collection
The History of the Exploration of the Amazon
Part One: Maps
"Making the map of the Amazon has taken all five hundred of the years that we have known of its existence. Solving the enigma in the heart of South America was not easy. The world's greatest river proved a potent guardian over her secrets. She mustered stout defences to protect her mystery from the explorer's paddle and the cartographer's pen. As man's voracious appetite to know, to record and to exploit, overwhelmed each of her bulwarks, he met new ones."
(Michael F. Layland: "They Charted the Amazon" p. 1)
1. BOWEN, Emanuel (ca. 1693-1767)
A New and Accurate Map of Peru and the Country of the Amazones. Drawn from the most authentick French Maps &c. And Regulated by Astronomical Observations.
[London], [1747 or 1757]. Copper engraved map ca. 34,5x42 cm (13 ¾ x 16 ½ in) with later outline hand colouring. Blank on verso. Overall a very good map.
A map from Bowen’s “A Complete System of Geography. Being a Description of All the Countries, Islands, Cities, Chief Towns, Harbours... Of the Known World” (London: for William Innys, Richard Ware et al., 1747).
“This copper-engraved map is filled with detail of the west coast of South America and the Amazon River system. The map extends from Ecuador south well into Chili. The western coastal areas are fully developed and well mapped with hundreds of place names, including Quito, Lima, Cusco and La Paz. There are several interesting notations including one locating gold and silver along the mythical Xarayes Lake. Another mythical lake, Parima Lake, is located in Guiana. The map is adorned with a decorative title cartouche” (Old World Auctions); Adonias, I. A Cartografia da Região Amazônica. Vol. 1., p. 271; Philips. Maps of America, p. 693; Tooley's Mapmakers, A-D, p.239.
2. BUACHE, Philippe (1700-1773)
[Map of Peru] Carte du Perou. Pour servir à l’Histoire des Incas et à celle de l’Etat present de cette Province. Sur les Observations Astronomiq.es faites aux Environs de l'Equateur et Communiquées à l'Academie depuis l'an 1736. jusqu'en 1739. Par M.M. Godin, Bouguer, et de la Condamine de l'Acad. R.le des Sciences, Assujetie pour les autres parties aux Observations du P. Feuillée, et de M. Frezier aux Routes et Remarques Geographiques de divers Voyageurs.
Paris, 1739. Copper engraved map, consisting of two joined sheets, ca. 38,5x31 cm (15 ¼ x 12 in). Faintly outline hand coloured. Blank on verso. Blank margins with some wear, otherwise a very good map.
"Buache was trained under the geographer Guillaume Delisle, whose daughter he married, and whom he succeeded in the Académie des sciences in 1730. Buache was nominated first geographer of the king in 1729. He established the division of the world by seas and river systems. He believed in a southern continent, an hypothesis which was confirmed by later discoveries. In 1754, he published an "Atlas physique." He also wrote several pamphlets" (Wikipedia).
The map was issued in two parts: “Parte Septentrionale” and “Parte Meridionale du Peru” which have been trimmed and joined; the map is from: Histoire des Incas rois du Perou / Garcilaso de la Vega ... Faite par T.F. Dalibard ... Paris, Prault fils, 1744. Tooley's Mapmakers A-D, p. 204.
3. CARY, John (1755-1835)
A New Map of South America from the Latest Authorities.
London, 1807. Large folding copper engraved map on two sheets each ca. 45,5x52,5 cm (17 ¾ x 20 ¾ in), with full original hand colouring. Original centerfolds. Overall a very good attractive map.
Maps 59 and 60 from “Cary’s Universal Atlas” (London, 1808) which give a detailed overview of the South American continent and the Caribbean.
“John Cary was an English cartographer. Cary served his apprenticeship as an engraver in London, before setting up his own business in the Strand in 1783. He soon gained a reputation for his maps and globes, his atlas, The New and Correct English Atlas published in 1787, becoming a standard reference work in England. In 1794 Cary was commissioned by the Postmaster General to survey England's roads. This resulted in Cary's New Itinerary (1798), a map of all the major roads in England and Wales. He also produced Ordnance Survey maps prior to 1805. In his later life he collaborated on geological maps with the geologist William Smith. His business was eventually taken over by G. F. Cruchley (1822–1875)” (Wikipedia); Philips. Maps of America, p. 805; Tooley's Mapmakers, A-D, p.239.
4. CHATELAIN, Henry Abraham (fl. 1684-1743)
Carte de la Terre Ferme, du Perou, du Bresil, et du Pays des Amazones. Dressee sur les Mémoires les plus Nouveaux & les observations les plus exactes [Map of Terra Firma, Peru, Brazil, and the Country of the Amazons...].
[Amsterdam], ca. 1720. Copper engraved map ca. 40,5x52 cm (16 x 20 ½ in), period outline hand colouring. Original centerfold, blank on verso. Some minor mild damp stains on the top right corner, otherwise a very good map.
A map from the 6th volume of Chatelain’s “Atlas Historique” (Amsterdam, 1705-1720, 7 vols.).
“Handsome map of the northern part of South America based on the cartography of Guillaume Delisle. It is filled with place names and notations speculating about the Indian tribes and the tributaries of the Amazon. The Capitanias are named in Brazil and the Inca Way is shown from Chuquisaca in Peru to Pasto in Colombia. Title at top with text block at upper right” (Old World Auctions); Philips. Maps of America, p. 797.
5. CONDAMINE, Charles Marie de la (1701-1774)
Karte von der Provinz Quito in Peru nach den astronomischen Wahrnehmungen, geographischen Ausmessungen, Reisetagebüchern und Nachrichten des Hrn de la Condamine [ Map of the Province of Quito in Peru..,].
Leipzig: [D’Anville], 1751 . Large folding uncoloured copper engraved map ca. 59x35 cm (23 ¼ x 13 ¾ in). Fold marks, paper slightly age-toned, otherwise a very good map.
"Condamine decided to return to Europe [from Colombia] by way of the Amazon, with the intention of accurately charting the river. Travelling south from Tarqui to Loja he descended the rivers Chinchipe and Chuchunga to Jaen (in Peru) on the Rio Maranon" (Howgego L10). From Jaen, he travelled via the Rio Maranon, Rio Ucayali and Rio Negro to Belem on the Atlantic.
This is the German version of La Condamine’s map which appeared in „Allgemeine Historie der Reisen zu Wasser und Lande“ (Leipzig, 1757, Bd. 15, p. 302); Phillips, Maps of America, p. 738.
This map shows "the long chain of triangulation down the spine of the Andes. This map was to summarize his several years labour measuring the length of a degree of latitude at the Equator — an amazing feat of mountaineering, quire apart from its considerable scientific merit! Another French team had gone to Lapland to do the same for a degree at a northern latitude. This was all in connection with a scientific debate between Newton and Cassini about the shape of the Earth — was it flattened at the poles or at the equator? National pride was very much in play. It so happened that Newton was correct (oblate = flatter at the poles) but Condamine's team did remarkable trigonometric survey work" (Michael Layland).
6. CONDAMINE, Charles Marie de la (1701-1774)
Carte de la Province de Quito au Perou, Dressée sur les Observations astronomiques, Mesures géographiques, Journaux de route et Mémoires de Mr. De la Condamine [ Map of the Province of Quito in Peru…].
Paris: D’Anville, 1751. Large folding copper engraved map ca. 58,5x35 cm (23 ¼ x 13 ¾ in). Later hand colouring. blank on verso. Fold marks, paper slightly age toned on extremities, otherwise a very good map.
A map from the first edition of La Condamine’s account of his famous expedition to South America “Journal du voyage fait par l'ordre du roi, a l'équateur” (Paris, 1751, 4 parts). "Condamine decided to return to Europe [from Colombia] by way of the Amazon, with the intention of accurately charting the river. Travelling south from Tarqui to Loja he descended the rivers Chinchipe and Chuchunga to Jaen (in Peru) on the Rio Maranon" (Howgego L10). From Jaen, he travelled via the Rio Maranon, Rio Ucayali and Rio Negro to Belem on the Atlantic.
“A detailed map from Condamine's survey of 1735-49 to determine the curvature of the earth at the equator, published by D'Anville. The map shows the triangulation points used in the valley between Quito and Cuenca. The map is decorated with two cartouches and eight scales of miles. This map is the result of one of the most important scientific expeditions in cartographic history, its primary intention being to determine the precise length of a degree of longitude in the region of the equator in order to calculate the size and shape of the globe. Condamine then explored the entire course of the Amazon on his return to France. This expedition to South America became famous, due to both the scientific findings and the incredible adventures experienced by its members” (Old World Auctions).
7. CORONELLI, Vincenzo Maria (1650-1718)
Corso del Fiume dell Amazoni [Course of the River of the Amazons].
[Venice], ca. 1691. Attractive copper engraved map ca. 28x45 cm (11 x 17 ¾ in). With later hand colouring, blank on verso. Minor creases, otherwise a very good map.
"This uncommon map of the northern half of the continent focuses on the course of the Amazon River. Typical of Coronelli's strong engraving style, the topographical features are very prominent. But most interesting are the many small illustrations of Native American life including several depictions of warfare, execution and cannibalism. Dispersed throughout the map are also several indigenous animals, including the incorrectly depicted elephants and lions. The distance scale is encircled in a ribbon that is being tied by a playful sea creature and the title is contained in a garland cartouche with the coat of arms of Giovanni da Verrazzano, to which the map is dedicated" (Old World Auctions); Phillips, Maps of America, p. 100.
8. D'ANVILLE, Jean Baptiste Bourguignon (1697-1782)
[Very Large Three Part Map of South America] Amerique Meridionale Publiée sous les Auspices de Monseigneur le Duc d'Orleans Prémier Prince du Sang.
Paris: Chez de l’Auteur, 1748. Copper-engraved map on three un-joined sheets ca. 122 x 77 cm total printed surface, hand-colored in outline. Engraved by G. Delahaye. With original folds and one sheet with some mild creasing, otherwise a very good map.
Much of the information on this large scale detailed map on the Amazon river and the rivers that flow into it comes from La Condamine. "Condamine decided to return to Europe [from Colombia] by way of the Amazon, with the intention of accurately charting the river. Travelling south from Tarqui to Loja he descended the rivers Chinchipe and Chuchunga to Jaen (in Peru) on the Rio Maranon" (Howgego L10). From Jaen, he travelled via the Rio Maranon, Rio Ucayali and Rio Negro to Belem on the Atlantic. Phillips, Maps of America, p. 799; Adonias, I. A Cartografia da Região Amazônica. Vol. 1., p. 272.
9. FRITZ, Samuel (1654-1728)
The Great River Maranon or of the Amazons Geographically Describ'd by Samuel Fritz, Missioner on the Said River.
[London], ca. 1715. Copper engraved map ca. 15,5x36,5 cm (6 ¼ x 14 ¼ in). Blank on verso. With old fold marks, overall a very good map.
“Samuel Fritz, a Jesuit missionary, spent 42 years in South America. During this time he mapped the missionary territory on the Upper Maranon between Peru and Quito, which was involved in a boundary dispute between Spain and Portugal. In 1689 he explored the Amazon and charted the river's course. This was the first approximately correct chart of the Maranon territory. He was also the first to follow the Tunguragua instead of the Gran Para (Ucayali) and proved it to be the real source of the Maranon. His important chart and the fascinating story of his imprisonment as a suspected Spanish spy were copied in numerous accounts during the 18th century. This map depicts the numerous tributaries of the Amazon River and identifies cities of all sizes, including Quito, Lima, and Cuzco. The mythical Parima L. Takes a rectangular shape just north of the great river” (Old World Auctions); Phillips, Maps of America, p. 100.
10. FRITZ, Samuel (1654-1728)
Cours du Fleuve Maragnon autrement dit des Amazones, par le P. Samuel Fritz, Missionnaire de la Compagnie de Jesus [The Great River Maranon or of the Amazons Geographically Describ'd by Samuel Fritz, Missioner on the Said River].
[Paris], ca. 1717 or 1781. Copper engraved map ca. 21,5x34,5 cm (8 ½ x 13 ½ in). Blank on verso. Original fold marks, right margin trimmed close to the printed surface as the map was originally bound in; overall a very good map.
According to Old World Auctions, the map is from “Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses” (Paris, 1717 or 1781?). Fritz was a "Bohemian jesuit missionary who spent nearly forty years on the River Amazon and its tributaries.., In addition to his missionary work, he contributed considerably to the geographical knowledge of the region, producing the first accurate map of the Amazon River system, published at Quito 1707. The boundary between the Portuguese and Spanish domination of the Amazon was eventually fixed at the Rio Javari by the Treaty of Madrid in 1750" (Howgego F77); Phillips, Maps of America, p. 100.
11. HOMANN HEIRS
[Map of the Northern Part of South America and the Amazon Basin] Tabula Americae Specialis Geographica Regni Peru, Brasiliae, Terrae Firmae et Reg. Amazonum; Secundum relationes de Herrera, de Laet, & PP. De Acuña & M. Rodriguetz. Aliorumas observations recentiores de Signata & edita per Guiliem de l'Isle, Geogr: Reg: Parisiensem. Nunc recusa.
[Nuremberg]: Homanianos Heredes, ca. 1740. Large double-page copper engraved map ca. 48,5x56,5 cm (19 x 22 ¼ in); period hand colouring. Original centrefold, blank on verso. With a small minor repaired marginal tear, otherwise a very good map.
A map from Homann’s "Atlas Novus Terrarum Orbis." (ca. 1745).
“This large and beautifully engraved map covers the northern half of South America. It is centered on the Valley of the Amazon and delineates the river and its myriad tributaries in particularly fine detail. The map is filled with annotations and place names. In Terra Firma the map locates Caracas, in Peru scores of cities are named including S. Miguel la Ribera, Cusco, Sevilla del Oro los Xibaros, Payta, Truxillo and Lima. There are extensive notes throughout the interior. The title is enclosed is a very large allegorical cartouche with soldiers, a personified sun burst, and a pot of gold coins” (Old World Auctions); Philips. Maps of America, p. 800; Adonias, I. A Cartografia da Região Amazônica. Vol. 1., p. 269.
12. HONDIUS, Henricus (the Younger) (1597-1651)
[Map of South America] Americae Pars Meridionalis.
Amsterdam, 1638. Large copper engraved original hand coloured map ca. 46,5x55 cm (18 ¼ x 21 ½ in). Original centrefold, Latin text on verso. Light age toning and foxing, otherwise a very good map.
“This is an important, decorative map of the South American continent. The coastlines are well detailed but the interior is filled with spurious information. Several rivers (including the Amazon and Paraguay) all have their source in the Lago de los Xarayes. The mythical Parime Lacus dominates the interior of Guyana. The map is richly embellished with ships and sea monsters in the oceans and vignettes of villages and animals on the continent. The large title cartouche features natives and indigenous animals” (Old World Auctions); Van der Krogt, P. Koeman’s Atlantes Neederlandici. Vol. 1, 9800: 1 B.1; Phillips, Maps of America, p. 793; Adonias, I. A Cartografia da Região Amazônica. Vol. 1., p. 185-186.
13. KIRCHER, Athanasius (1601 or 1602–1680)
[Map of the Americas] Mappa fluxus et refluxus rationes in Isthmo Americano, in Freto Magellanico, caeterisque Americae Littoribus Exhibens.
[Amsterdam], ca. 1664. Copper engraved map ca. 34x41,5 cm (13 ½ x 16 ¼ in). Text in Latin. Original centerfold, blank on verso. With some very mild damp staining and with several small tears neatly repaired on verso. A couple of places with loss of original margin (one with loss of printed surface), neatly repaired with old paper. Overall a good map.
Map from the first volume of Kircher’s famous “Mundus Subterraneus, quo universae denique naturae divitiae” (Amsterdam, 2 vols, 1st ed. – 1664-1665, 2nd ed. – 1668, 3rd ed. - 1678).
“Very unusual map depicting all of South America and most of North America. The map is totally devoid of political detail with the exception of the floating city of Mexico, shown a bit too far north, and California is named. Instead the map features the principal rivers, lakes, mountains and volcanoes in South America. A huge crater lake, probably Lake Titicaca although it is situated too far north, is depicted as the source of the Amazon. The Andes are shown as a range of live volcanoes. Three sailing ships and a strap work title cartouche adorn the map. Kircher is credited with publishing the first book describing the ocean's currents and this map is a beautiful example of his representations that are surprisingly accurate” (Old World Auctions); Burden 382; Tooley: Dictionary p. 357.
14. LINSCHOTEN, Jan Huyghen van (1563-1611)
Delineatio Omnium Orarum Totius Australis Partis Americae, Dictae Peruvianae, a R. De la Plata, Brasiliam, Pariam, & Castellam auream... [The Description of the Whole Coast Lying in the South Seas of Americae called Peru, Beginning at Rio de Plata, Along the Coast of Brasilia, Paria, and the Golden Castell...].
[London], 1598. Large copper engraved map ca. 38,5x54 cm (15 x 21 ¼ in). Text in Latin and English. Original folds, blank on verso. Map orientated to the west, with two ornate strap work cartouches, mileage scale, compass rose and rhumb lines. Map closely cropped to printed surface with no loss, re-margined with old paper and backed with very thin Japanese paper, but overall still a very good map.
A map from Linschoten’s “His Discours of Voyages unto ye Easte & West Indies devided into Foure Bookes.” "The rarest of all editions of Linschoten's work"(Borba de Moraes I, p.488).
“This is one of the most striking and decorative maps of South America and is an important early record of the continent. The map is oriented with north to the right and includes Florida and the West Indies. The Straits of Magellan are depicted with Terra del Fuego shown as a part of the great southern landmass. The coastlines are well defined and densely engraved with place names while the interior is filled with fictional mountains, rivers and vignettes of Patagonian giants, Brazilian cannibals and numerous strange animals including a lion-like creature with a striped tail and human face. Other embellishments include large elaborate cartouches, sea monsters, galleons and a beautiful compass rose. Engraved by Arnold van Langeren from Portuguese and Spanish sources that Linschoten gathered while living for six years under the patronage of the Catholic archbishop in Goa” (Old World Auctions). Linschoten's "Discours" "soon became required reading for all navigators to the East" (Howgego L131); Phillips, Maps of America, p. 793.
15. MONTANUS, Arnoldus (ca. 1625-1683)
[Map of Brazil] Brasilia.
[Amsterdam], ca. 1671. Uncoloured copper engraved map ca. 29x36 cm (11 ½ x 14 in). Original fold marks, blank on verso, otherwise a strong impression and overall a very good map.
A map from Montanus’ famous work "De Nieuwe en Onbekende Weereld" (Amsterdam, 1671).
“Excellent map of the eastern part of Brazil based on the cartography of Hessel Gerritsz and an earlier map by Blaeu. Extensive detail in coastal regions with the interior left largely blank except for some conjectural river systems. The Linea Aequinoctialis is prominently shown dividing the Spanish and Portuguese colonial claims. Richly embellished with rhumb lines, compass roses and sailing ships. European traders, Indians and putti surround the title and scale of miles cartouches” (Old World Auctions).
16. ORTELIUS, Abraham (1527-1598)
[Map of the Gold Regions of Peru] Peruviae Auriferae Regionis Typus. Didaco Mendezio Auctore.
Antwerp, ca. 1590. Copper engraved map ca. 34x22,5 cm (13 ¼ x 8 ¾ in). Latin text on verso. With a small repaired tear in the right margin but overall a very good map.
A map from Ortelius’ “Theatrum Orbis Terrarum”, here without the two other maps printed on the same sheet (La Florida and Guatescan Reg.); “This was one of the few sixteenth century maps based on Spanish sources; in this case drawing from reports of Hernando de Soto's expedition through the region. There are three maps on this sheet. The third is a map of Peru, where De Soto was the first Spaniard to meet Inca Emperor Atahuallpa. In the north of the map of Peru is Aurea Regio, or Kingdom of Gold, a reference to the fabled El Dorado. All maps contain decorative cartouches, and the map of Peru is embellished with two ships” (Old World Auctions); Burden 57; Cumming (SE) 5.
"Soto, as the expedition's captain of horse, was to become the driving force in the Spaniard's defeat of the Incas at Cajamarca.., After Pizarro's capture of Atahuallpa, Soto seized Cuzco" (Howgego S137); "Didacus Mendezius, mentioned on the plate as the author of this map, is unknown in cartographical history. Possibly, it derives from Don Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, a philologist (Meurer p.194)" (Van den Broecke 15a).
17. PHILIP, George (1800-1882)
[Map of] Guiana with Parts of Colombia & Brazil.
London & Liverpool: George Philip & Son, [ca. 1856]. Large double-page colour lithographed map ca. 50x61 cm (ca. 19 ½ x 24 in). Original centrefold, blank on verso. A very small tear on the blank lower margin, otherwise a near fine map.
Map of the northwestern part of South America including Guiana, Colombia, most of Venezuela, the northern part of Brazil with the Amazon basin, as well as parts of Ecuador and New Granada. Probably from a later edition of “Philips' series of penny maps, forming a comprehensive atlas of modern and ancient geography” (first edition – Liverpool, 1853). Tooley's Mapmakers K-P, p.423-5.
18. PINKERTON, John (1758-1856)
[Map of] Peru.
London: Cadell & Davies, & Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1810. Large double-page copper engraved map ca. 50,5x70 cm (ca. 19 ¾ x 27 ½ in). Borders hand coloured. Original centrefold, blank on verso. Drawn by L. Hebert, engraved by Neele. A very good map with wide margins.
A map from “Pinkerton’s Modern Atlas” showing the Pacific coast of Peru, as well as its interior with the Amazon basin. The inset shows the extension of the southern coast of Peru from Arequipa to the Atacama Desert.
“Pinkerton was a celebrated master of the Edinburgh school of cartography which lasted from roughly 1800 to 1830. Pinkerton, along with John Thomson & Co. And John Cary, redefined cartography by exchanging the elaborate cartouches and fantastical beasts used in the 18th century for more accurate detail. Pinkerton’s main work was the “Pinkerton’s Modern Atlas” published from 1808 though 1815 with an American version by Dobson & Co. In 1818. Pinkerton maps are today greatly valued for their quality, size, colouration, and detail” (Wikipedia); Phillips. Maps of America, p. 694; Tooley's Mapmakers K-P, P.435-6.
19. REQUENA, Francisco (1743-1824)
[Map to Delineate the Boundary Between the Spanish and Portuguese Possessions in South America] Mapa Geográfico de la mayor parte de la América Meridional que contiene Los Paises por donde debe trazarse La Línea Divisoria que divida los Dominios de España Y Portugal. Construido en virtud de Real Órden por el Teniente General Dn. Francisco Requena en el ano de 1796.
Phila[delphia]: F. Bourquin, ca. 1876. Large folding lithographed map ca. 124x95,5 cm (37 ½ x 49 in), dissected and linen backed, the border lines hand coloured. Map slightly browned, with four holes in the corners for hanging, and a few worm holes in the upper margin, but overall a very good map.
Rare first edition of the map drawn by Francisco Requena after his expedition to the Amazon in order to delineate the boundary between the Spanish and Portuguese possessions in South America. The map covers most of South America and highlights the newly established Line of Demarcation. It is supplemented with "Advertencias sobre esta mapa general" and "Esplicación de la linea de demarcación y puntos de disputa" – a list of twenty border questions still to be resolved.
The map was drawn in 1796 to illustrate Requena’s official report “Memoria Histórica de las Demarcaciones de Límites en América entre los Dominios de España y Portugal”. None of the documents were published by the Spanish authorities at the time. “Requena’s maps proved of value in post independence border disputes. In 1876 the Venezuelan government ordered the printing of Requena’s ‘Memoria Histórica’ and an associated map ‘Parte de los virreynatos’ to be used as documentary support for the arbitration of Venezuela’s border with Colombia. About the same time, F. Bourquin, a contract printer in Philadelphia, made a lithographic printing of the ‘Mapa Geográfico’” (Layland, M. “A Land that is uncultivated, insane, impassible and largely unknown…”, p. 49).
The map was “drawn to indicate the boundaries between the Spanish and Portuguese territories in accordance with the Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1777. Francisco Requena arrived in America in 1764, having accepted a commission in the Spanish Americas in order to obtain promotion. He mapped the cities of Panama and Cartagena and was persuaded by the Viceroy, Mesia de la Cerda, to remain in America to continue his cartographic work, being asked to make a general map of the whole of the province of Guayaquil. After the Treaty of San Ildefonso, he was commissioned to establish the boundaries between the Spanish and Portuguese territories from the mouth of the Riber Yavari to the Rio Negro. The expedition was fraught with difficulties, the Spanish having little co-operation from the Portuguese. He systematically sent regular reports and letters to the Viceroy recording his movements and the situation with relation to the Portuguese. In 1783 Requena was kept waiting at Ega (Teffe), unable to achieve his objective to define the boundary line between the two colonial powers, and to obtain a joint statement with the Portuguese. While awaiting the outcome of negotiations he took advantage of his enforced idleness to examine his manuscript notes and draw a map of the territory. This he sent to the Viceroy on 28 April 1783 (the map is dated 1 April 1783) having first to request a special pass from the Portuguese for his second in command to travel to Quito, which they refused to grant. At the end of 1790 he took up his duties as govenor of Mainas, and in 1794 left for Spain, later becoming Minister of the Council of the Indies” (Sotheby’s); Adonias, I. A Cartografia da Região Amazônica. Vol. 1., p. 323-326.
20. RUGENDAS, Johann Moritz (1802-1858)
[Lithograph Showing Puri Indians in Brazil]: Tanz der Puris.
[Paris]: [Engelmann], . Uncoloured lithograph ca. 20,5x27,5 cm (8 x 10 ¾ in). Lithographed by J. Brodtmann. A very good lithograph.
Plate # 7 from “Malerische Reise in Brasilien” by Johann Moritz Rugendas (Paris, 1835, 4 parts). These fine plates "are of the utmost importance for the study of Brazilian life at the beginning of the nineteenth century" (Borba de Moraes II, p.754); Colas 2594; Sabin 73934.
21. RUSCELLI, Girolamo (ca. 1518-1566)
[New Map of Brazil] Brasil Nuova Tavola.
[Venice]: [Giordano Ziletti], . Uncoloured copper engraved map ca. 18,5x25,5 cm (7 ¼ x 10 in). Original centrefold, Italian text on verso. Very good map with wide margins.
Plate XXX from the second edition of Ruscelli’s “La Geografia de Claudio Tolomeo Allessadrino” which is “a mere reprint or reissue of the first. The 64 double-page copperplate maps, with the descriptive text on the backs, are the same as those in the preceding edition and in the Latin edition of 1562, having been printed from the same plates” (Eames, W. A list of editions of Ptolemy’s Geography, 1475-1730. P. 38-39).
“This is one of the earliest maps of Brazil that is available to collectors. Though most of the maps in Ruscelli's edition of Ptolemy are enlarged re-engravings of those found in the Gastaldi edition of 1548, there are four important, original maps including this one of Brazil. The map is oriented with north to the right. There are some coastal place names, but very little interior detail other than scattered rivers, mountains, forests and a large volcano. The interior is labeled Terra non Descoperta and there is a notation referring to cannibals (Gli indi natij di questi paesi mangiano carne humana). In later editions this notation is replaced with an illustration of cannibalism. This is the first state with the platemark running through the top margin” (Old World Auctions).
22. RUSCELLI, Girolamo (ca. 1518-1566)
[Map of South America] Tierra Nova.
[Venice]: [Vincenzo Valgrisi], . Uncoloured copper engraved map ca. 18,5x24,5 cm (7 ¼ x 9 ¾ in). Original centrefold, Italian text on verso. Minor tear on the upper margin slightly affecting the printed area, otherwise a very good map with wide margins.
Plate XXIX from the first edition of Ruscelli’s “La Geografia de Claudio Tolomeo Allessadrino” shows “the South American continent with Castilla del Oro, Perv Provincia and El Brasil. […] The maps were reprinted in the Latin edition of 1562, and in the Italian editions of 1564, 1574 and 1599, but with some changes in the latter” (Eames, W. A list of editions of Ptolemy’s Geography, 1475-1730. P. 37-38).
“An early copper engraving based on Gastaldi, covering the South American continent, the South Atlantic and part of the coast of Guinea. It includes numerous inaccuracies with the Amazon River, here called “R. Maragnon”, shown with its source in the south. There are place names along the coastlines, except in present-day Chili, which had yet to be explored by Europeans. The great Inca cities are shown in Peru” (Old World Auctions).
23. SANSON, Nicolas (1600-1667)
Le Perou et le Cours de la Riviere Amazone, depuis ses Sources jusques a la Mer [Peru and the Course of the River Amazon, from its Sources to the Sea].
Paris: Pierre Mariette, 1656. Large copper engraved map ca. 40,5x54,5 cm (15 ¾ x 21 ½ in). Engraved by Jean Somer (Iohannes Somer Pruthenus). Original period hand colouring. Original centrefold, blank on verso. Overall a very good map.
“This is the uncommon folio version of Sanson's handsome map of the western part of the continent and the full course of the Amazon. The spurious Lac, ou Mer de Parime is prominent as is the location of the mythical city Manoa el Dorado (city of gold). The mythical lake of Xarayes also appears east of Titicaca L. Fully engraved to show topography, cities and villages and decorated with an attractive strapwork title cartouche” (Old World Auctions).
“Sanson’s map of Peru and the Amazon was the first to publish data derived from Teixeira’s expedition on 1637-1639. […] Sanson’s rivers are drawn with confidence and considerable detail. He depicts the intermeshing channels in the middle reaches in a picturesque “braiding” effect. Sanson’s map notes a tributary, a village, a mountain and a mine, all called de l’Or – recording the place where Teixeira had quelled his mutiny” (Layland, M. Teixeira’s Act of Possession, p. 28).
“Pedro Teixeira (d. 1641) was a Portuguese explorer who became, in 1637, the first European to travel up the entire length of the Amazon River. […] His exploits are considered remarkable even by today's standards. Because of Teixeira and other Portuguese who pushed into the depths of the Amazon, Portugal was able to obtain far more of South America from their Spanish competitors than the Treaty of Tordesillas had granted in 1494. He was called by the Indian natives Curiua-Catu, meaning The Good and Friendly White Man” (Wikipedia); Phillips, Maps of America, p. 693.
24. TIRION, Isaak (1705-1765)
Kaart van het Onderkoningschap van Peru, zig uitstrekkende over Chili, Paraguay en andere Spaansche Landen: als ook van Brazil en verdure Bezittingen van Portugal in Zuid-Amerika [Map of the Viceroyalty of Peru, extending over Chile, Paraguay and other Spanish Lands: and also of Brazil and other Possessions of Portugal in South America].
Amsterdam, 1765. Folding copper engraved map ca. 36x39,5 cm (14 ¼ x 15 ¾ in). Upper and right margins slightly trimmed, blank on verso. Fold marks, paper mildly age toned, otherwise a very good map.
A map from “Nieuwe en Beknopte Hand Atlas” (also published in the second volume of “Hegendaagsche historie tegenwoordige staat van America”). “Handsome, detailed map of most of the continent - leaving off the northern coastline. The southern tip is enclosed in a large inset balancing the composition with the block-style title cartouche” (Old World Auctions); Adonias, I. A Cartografia da Região Amazônica. Vol. 1., p. 309; Phillips. Maps of America, p. 801.
25. WELLS, Edward (1667-1727)
A New Map of South America, Shewing it’s General Divisions, Chief Cities & Towns; Rivers, Mountains &c. Dedicated to His Highness William, Duke of Gloucester.
[Oxford], ca. 1700. Large hand coloured copper engraved map ca. 36,5x49 cm (14 ¼ x 19 ¼ in). Engraved by Benjamin Cole. Original centerfold, blank on verso. With some minor staining on the upper right of the map, otherwise a very good map.
A map from Wells’ “A New Sett of Maps Both of Antient and Present Geography” (London, several editions 1700-1722).
“Handsome map of South America with little detail except for missions and notes concerning European discoveries such as a note in Brazil that the Portuguese discovered the region about 1501 but possess "little more than the coasts; the inland parts being inhabited by Barbarous Nations who still maintain their freedom." A very large elaborate title cartouche features the British coat of arms and is dedicated to William Duke of Gloucester, who was Wells' student at Oxford. Engraved by Benjamin Cole” (Old World Auctions); Phillips Atlases 3479.
26. WYLD, James (1812-1887)
[Map of] Colombia Prima or South America Drawn from the Large Map in Eight Sheets by Louis Stanislas d'Arcy Delarochette.
London: James Wyld, ca. 1840. Large folding uncoloured lithographed map consisting of two sheets, each ca. 54x78 cm (21 ¼ x 30 ¾ in). Original centrefolds, blank on verso. Vertical crease on the lower part of the map, but overall a very good set of this very large map.
“This striking large map is drawn from Louis Stanislas D'Arcy Delarochette's monumental eight sheet map of South America, which was used to settle numerous border disputes throughout the continent. It incorporates the most up-to-date geographical information and includes numerous interesting notations throughout. Three insets in the lower portion of the map present data from Humboldt's report in the form of topographical profiles: "Section of the Andes...," "Section of South America from West to East...," and "Section of the Road from La Guayra to Caracas." Also included is a comparative distance table and an index titled "Civil Divisions, Population and Extent" for Colombia, Peru, the United Provinces, Chili, Patagonia, Brazil and Guyana” (Old World Auctions); Tooley's Mapmakers Q-Z, p.417.
27. WYTFLIET, Cornelius van (1555-1597)
[Early Map of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama] Castilia Aurifera cum Vicinis Provinciis.
[Louvain], ca. 1597 or later? Uncoloured copper engraved map ca. 23x29,5 cm (9 x 11 ½ in). Original centrefold, blank on verso. With some minor creases, otherwise a very good map with wide margins.
“From Wytfliet's important atlas, this map is the first to exclusively feature the Americas. It covers Colombia, Panama and part of Venezuela. Several important colonial settlements are named and located, including Cartago, Victoria, Cartagena, and Panama [City]. Decorative title cartouche at upper left. From: Descriptionis Ptolemaicae augmentum” (Old World Auctions).
“In the first new world atlas Descriptionis Ptolemaicae augmentum, Lovanti 1597. Other editions 1598, 1603, 1605, 1607 and 1611 used same plate” (Kapp. The Early Maps of Colombia, # 4).
28. WYTFLIET, Cornelius van (1555-1597)
[Early Map of Peru] Peruani Regni Descriptio.
[Douai], ca. 1605. Uncoloured copper engraved map ca. 23x29 cm (9 x 11 ½ in). Original centrefold. In an attractive 19th century wooden frame elaborately decorated with multicolour wooden inlays. With a small minor stain in the center right part of the map, otherwise a very good map. The map hasn’t been examined out of the frame.
"This important early map of Peru is finely engraved with numerous cities located throughout. Lake Titicaca is elongated and joined with Aulaga Lake. The map is embellished with a large strap work title cartouche and a stipple engraved sea. This is the second state of the map, with the date removed from the title cartouche. The first state appeared in Wytfliet's Descriptionis Ptolemaicae Augmentum... In 1597, which is considered the earliest atlas to focus on the Americas. This edition is from the first French translation of Wytfliet's important atlas"(Old World Auctions). This map is from “Histoire Universelle des Indes” (F.Fabri, 1605); Nordenskiold #309-6; Phillips, Maps of America, p. 692.
29. ZATTA, Antonio (fl. 1757-1797)
La Terra Ferma la Gujana Spagnola, Olandese, Francese, e Portughese e la Parte Settentrle. Del Bresil. [Map of Terra Firma and Spanish, Dutch, French and Portuguese Guiana..,].
Venice: Antonio Zatta e Figli, 1785. Copper engraved map ca. 31x40,5 cm (12 ¼ x 16 in). Engraved by G. Pitteri. Outline hand coloured. Original centerfold, blank on verso. A very good map.
An attractive map showing the northern part of South America including the Amazon Basin. This map is from the 4th volume of Zatta’s “Atlante novissimo” (Venice, 1775-1785, 4 vols.); Phillips. Atlases 650 – vol. 4, 26; Tooley's Mapmakers Q-Z, p. 429.
Michael Layland first visited the Amazon while on a three year engineering project in Peru. While there, he travelled to the Andean headwaters of the Amazon and made a journey down the River Ucayali to Iquitos, visiting indigenous forest peoples along the way. He subsequently returned to South America several times and spent a total of eleven years there, also visiting the Amazon basin in Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia. In addition to his mapping work, he avidly developed his other hobbies connected with the region, namely photographing tropical butterflies and collecting antique maps and travel accounts relating to the exploration of the Amazon.
The present collection was formed as a reference source for researching his (yet unpublished) book "They Charted the Amazon, Five Centuries of Exploration and Mapping the World's Greatest River." Michael has also authored numerous articles on the exploration of the Amazon which have been published in 'The Map Collector," "Mercator's World" and "The Oxford Companion to World Exploration." Currently, he is in the final stages of producing a book on the cartographic history of Vancouver Island.
Michael was trained as a surveyor and map maker by the Royal Engineers in the British Army, in which he served for seven years in diverse locations like Cyprus, Arabia's Empty Quarter, the Seychelles and the Outer Hebrides. When he left the army, he entered civilian life by working on commercial surveying projects in Peru, Central America, Mexico and North and West Africa.
Michael has lived in British Columbia for the last thirty years and is the current president of the Friends of the BC Archives, a committee member of the Historical Map Society of BC, a former president of the Victoria Historical Society, a former chairman of the Vancouver Branch of the Canadian Institute of Surveying and Mapping and a member of the Society for the History of Discoveries and the International Map Collectors' Society.
1. Adonias, I. A Cartografia da Região Amazônica: 2 vols. Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, 1963.
2. Borba de Moraes, R. Bibliographia Brasiliana: 2 vols. Los Angeles: University of California, 1983.
3. Burden, P. D. The Mapping of North America, 1511-1670. Vol. 1. Rickmansworth: Raleigh Publications, 1996.
4. Colas, R. Bibliographie Générale du Costume et de la Mode: Reprint. Maurizio Martino Publisher, n.d.
5. Cumming, W. P. The Southeast in Early Maps. 3rd ed. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
6. Eames, W. A list of editions of Ptolemy’s Geography, 1475-1730. New York, 1886.
7. Howgego, R.J. Encyclopedia of Exploration. [Vol. 1] To 1800. Potts Point: Hordern House, 2011.
8. Kapp, K.S. The Early Maps of Colombia up to 1850. North Bend: K.S. Kapp Publications, 1971.
9. Layland, M. Teixeira’s Act of Possession// Mercator’s World. 1996. Vol. 1, # 2. P. 24-29.
10. Layland, M. “A land that is uncultivated, insane, impassible and largely unknown…” The Story Behind Requena’s Map of 1796 // Mercator’s World. 1996. Vol. 1, # 5. P. 45-49.
11. Layland, M. They Charted the Amazon: Five Centuries of Exploration and Mapping of the World’s Greatest River: [Unpublished Manuscript]. 1996.
12. Mickwitz A.-M., Miekkavaara, L. The A.E. Nordenskiöld Collection in the Helsinki University Library: Annotated Catalogue of Maps Made up to 1800: 3 vols. Helsinki, 1979-1984.
13. Phillips, P. L. A List of Geographical Atlases in the Library of Congress: Reprint. [4 vols]. Maurizio Martino Publisher, 1992.
14. Phillips P. L. A List of Maps of America in the Library of Congress: Reprint. New York: Burt Franklin, n.d.
15. Sabin, J. A Dictionary of Books Relating to America from its Discovery to the Present Time: Reprint. 2 vols. Martino Publishing, 2002.
16. Tooley’s Dictionary of Mapmakers/ Ed. J. French: 4 vols. Map Collectors Publications – Early World Press, 1999-2004.
17. Van den Broecke, M. P.R. Ortelius Atlas Maps: an Illustrated Guide. Utrecht: HES Publishers, 1996.
18. Van der Krogt, P. Koeman’s Atlantes Neederlandici: 3 vols (in 4 parts). Utrecht: HES Publishers, 1997-2000.